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River System of India – Ganga River System

Prime Watershed of River Origin in India
  • Himalayas and Karakoram ranges
  • Vindhya, Satpura ranges and Chota Nagpur Plateau
  • Western Ghats
River categories on the basis of their origin
  • Himalayan Rivers
  • Deccan Rivers
  • Coastal Rivers
  • Rivers of the inland Drainage basin
Top 5 largest rivers of India  Ganga > Godavari > Krishna > Yamuna > Brahmaputra

Ganga River System

Ganga Tributaries Yamuna, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi, Son, Tons & Punpun
Ghaghara Tributaries Sarda & Rakti
Kosi Tributaries Arun, Tamur & Sun Koshi
Yamuna Tributaries Chambal, Sind, Betwa & Ken
Chambal Tributaries Kali Sindh, Parvati & Banas

India River System

River Ganga

  • Origin As Bhagirathi from Gangotri Glacier (Uttarkashi – Uttarakhand)
  • Alakananda unites with Bhagirathi at Devprayag, Uttarakhand Henceforth known as Ganga
  • Passing through Rishikesh, it debounches in plains of Haridwar
  • From Haridwar, it flows Southward to reach Allahabad where it joins Yamuna
  • Near Rajmahal Hills, it turns southeast & bifurcate at Farraka into Hoogly (Kolkata) & Padma (BD)
  • At Bangladesh, Ganga merges with Brahmputra (Known as Jamuna in Bangladesh) at Goalundo Ghats
  • Mixture is known as Padma River 
  • Then it merges with Meghna & finally falls in Bay of Bengal
  • Meghna Known as Barack river in India 
  • Major tributaries → Yamuna, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi, Son, Tons & Punpun

 


Major Tributaries of Ganga River System

Ghaghara
  • Origin Bharchachungar Glacier (Rakas lake) near Mansarovar
  • Joins Ganga at Chhapra
  • Known as Manchu or Karnali in Nepal
  • Known as Saryu or Ghaghra in UP
  • Perennial river
  • Major tributaries Sarda & Rakti 
Gandak
  • Origin Sino – Nepal Boundary (Dhaulagiri range)
  • Known as Kalyani in Nepal
  • Major River of Nepal
  • Joins Ganga at Sonpur, Bihar
Kosi
  • Origin Gosainath peak (Tibet)
  • Merges with river Ganga at Bhagalpur (Bihar)
  • Consists of 7 streams & known as Saptakoshi in Nepal
  • Main stream Arun, Tamur & Sun Koshi
  • Formerly Known as Sorrow of Bihar
  • Major Projects Kusha Dam
Son
  • Origin Amarkantak Plateau (Near north of origin of Narmada)
  • Flows through Kaimur Range to meet Ganga at Patna 
Gomti
  • Originates from Gomat Taal / Fulhaar jheel – Pilibhit
  • A tributary of Ganga
Yamuna
  • Origin Yamunotri Glacier (Uttarkashi – Uttarakhand)
  • Largest Tributary of Ganga
  • After cutting deep gorge across Shivalik, it enters into plains near Tajewala
  • Flows southward up to Agra & then turns southeast to meet Ganga at Allahabad
  • Famous tributaries Chambal, Sind, Betwa & Ken
Betwa
  • Major Tributaries Tributary of Yamuna, rises from Vindhya range, MP
  • Major Projects       → Matatila dam & Rajghat dam
Ken 
  • Rises from Kaimur hills in Satna (Madhya Pradesh), a tributary of Yamuna
  • Famous for its Shajar stone &  Raneh waterfalls
Chambal
  • Origin Vindhya Range (Mhow, MP)
  • Passes through Kota & Dhaulpur (Rajasthan)
  • Merge with Yamuna at Etawah (UP)
  • forms boundary between Rajasthan & MP
  • Major tributaries       Kali Sindh, Parvati & Banas
  • Main Power Projects Gandhisagar, Rana Pratap Sagar & Jawahar Sagar
Banas 
  • Originate from eastern slopes of Aravali
  • Tributary of Chambal
Damodar  
  • Origin Eastern part of Chhota Nagpur Plateu
  • Meets Hoogli at Falta
  • Power Projects Talaiya, Maithan, Barakar & Panchet
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017

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