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India Physiography – The Northern Indian Plains

Physiography of India

 

 

India can be divided into following physical divisions viz.

  • The Northern Mountains
  • The North Indian Plain
  • The Peninsular Plateau
  • Great Indian Desert
  • The coastal Regions
  • Islands


The North Indian Plain

  • Formed by depositional work of Rivers viz. Indus, Ganga & Brahamputra
  • 2400 km long & varying in width from 240 to approx. 320 km
  • Divided into three sections, viz. the Punjab Plain (Indus), the Ganga Plain and the Brahmaputra Plain

Northern Indian Plains

Punjab Plains Formed by the Indus and its tributaries with major portion of this plains in Pakistan
Ganga Plains Between Ghaggar and Tista rivers (Haryana, Delhi, UP, Bihar, part of Jharkhand and West Bengal lie in the Ganga plains)
Brahmaputra Plains From Tista to Dihang with major portion lying in Assam

Northern Plains India


Northern plains subdivisions

Bhabhar 

  • Lies along foothills of Shiwaliks, From Indus to Tista
  • Laid down by streams coming from hills
  • Comprises of pebble studded rocks (Highly porous bed plain)
  • Due to high porosity, streams disappears here 
Tarai 

  • Lies south of Bhabhar & runs parallel to it
  • Marked by re-emergence of underground streams of Bhabhar belt
  • Highly alluvial & agricultural land
  • Has a high water table due to groundwater percolating down from the adjacent zone
Khadar 

  • Flood plains with newer alluvium deposited by  flood almost every year
  • Marked with fertile soil
  • Zone of intensive agriculture
  • Non porous, clayey and loamy
Bhangar

  • Alluvial terrace lying above the level of flood plains
  • Composed of the oldest alluvial soil
  • coarse in nature, contain kankar (lime nodules), pebbles, gravels
  • Soil of this region is locally known as kankar  viz. calcareous concretions
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