India Physiography – The Northern Mountains (Himalayas)
Physiography of India
India can be divided into following physical divisions viz.
- The Northern Mountains
- The North Indian Plain
- The Peninsular Plateau
- Great Indian Desert
- The coastal Regions
The Northern Mountains (Himalayas)
- The Himalayan Mountains form the northern mountain region of India.
- They are the highest mountain ranges in the world.
- These mountain ranges start from Pamir Knot in the west and extend up to Purvanchal in the east.
- Youngest & Loftiest mountain range of the world
- Formed by Tectonic Forces & are 2400 Km in Length
- Are of varying width → from 400 Km in Kashmir to 160 Km Arunachal Pradesh
- Altitudinal variations are greater in the eastern part than in the western part
- Prominent Features → Highest peaks, Deep valleys & Gorges, Glaciers etc.
The Himalayan Mountains can be further divided into following major ranges -
|Greater Himalaya (Inner Himalaya)
||Outer Himalaya (Shivalik Range/ Himachals)
Eastern hills / Purvanchal
- Brahmaputra marks the eastern border of the Himalayas.
- Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply towards south and form the Eastern hills or Purvanchal which run through the NE India & are mostly composed of sandstones
- Mishmi hills, Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipuri Hills and Mizo Hills
Classification of Himalayas on the basis of Geographic Location
- Punjab Himalayas / Kashmir Himalaya / Himachal Himalaya → Between the Indus and Sutlej
- Kumaon Himalayas → Between Sutlej and Kali rivers
- Nepal Himalayas → Between Kali and Tista rivers
- Assam Himalayas → Between Tista and Dihang rivers
Significance of Himalayas for India
|Strategic significance||Acts as a natural frontier of India with other countries (China, Pakistan, Afghanistan)|
|Climatic significance||Prevent further northward movement of summer monsoon and also prevent cold northern winds from Siberia to enter into India|
|Agricultural significance||Rivers from Himalayas deposits a lot of sediment on its foothold, from which are formed India’s most fertile agricultural grounds known as Northern plains|
|Economic significance||Huge hydro-electric power potential of Himalayan rivers + Himalayan timber + Himalayan Herbs & Medicinal plants|
|Tourism Significance||Comprises of Large ecological biodiversity, natural views & hill stations|