India Position & Population Statistics

Lies in South Asia North of Equator
Latitude (8*4’ – 37*6’) N Longitude (68*7’ – 97*25’)E
2nd largest arable land (after US) Population 17.6 % of the world
Area 3.28 million sq. km (2.4 % of world) 7th Largest in Area
Southernmost Point Indira Point (6*45’)N St. meridian Allahabad (82*3’)E
Kashmir – Kanyakumari 3214 km Rann of Kutch – Arunachal Pradesh 2933 km
Mainland Coastline 6100 km (Mainland + A & N + Lakshadweep ) coastline 7517 km

  • Population China > India > US > Indonesia > Brazil > Pakistan
  • Area           Russia > Canada > US > China > Brazil > Australia > India
  • Religion     Christian > Muslims > Hindus > Chinese folks > Buddhists
  • Language   Mandarin Chinese > English > Hindi > Spanish > Russian > Arabic

India in the world

Most populous UP Largest Area Rajasthan Male Population 51.54 %
Least Populous Sikkim Least Area Goa Female Population 48.46 %
Most literacy Kerala Male literacy 82.14 % Max Sex ratio Kerala
Least Literacy Bihar Female literacy 65.46 % Least Sex ratio   Haryana

Census 2011

 Population 1.21 billion (17.5% of the world)
Male 623.7 million
Female 586.5 million
Literacy 74.04%
  Male 82.14%
  Female 65.46%
  Highest Kerala > Lakshadweep > Mizoram
  Lowest Bihar
  Highest –Female Kerala
  Lowest – Female Rajasthan
  Highest – Male Lakshadweep
  Lowest – Male Bihar
  Sex Ratio 940 – Highest since 1971
Highest (State) Kerala – 1084
Lowest (State) Haryana – 877
Highest (UT) Puducherry – 1038
Lowest (UT) Dadra and nagar (775)
Child Sex Ratio 914
  Highest Mizoram – 971
  Lowest Haryana – 830
Density of Population 382 per sq. km
  Highest Delhi > Bihar > WB > UP
  Lowest A & N > Arunachal Pradesh
Most Populous State Uttar Pradesh
Least Populous State Sikkim
Most Populous UT Delhi
Least Populous UT Lakshadweep
Highest Growth of Population Meghalaya
Least Growth of Population Nagaland (negative growth)

Factors of Population Distribution in India

  • Physical factors such as Climate, Terrain and Availability of water
  • North Indian Plains, deltas and Coastal Plains have climate suitable for agriculture and fertile plains hence have higher proportion of population
  • Mountainous and forested regions of southern and central Indian States, Himalayan states, and some of the north-eastern states are less populated
  • Development of irrigation (Rajasthan), availability of mineral and energy resources (Jharkhand) and development of transport network (Peninsular States) have resulted in moderate to high proportion of population.
  • Socio-economic and historical factors
  • Traditional settled agriculture and early human settlement has resulted in large population in river plains and coastal areas of India
  • Development of transport and better agricultural development has resulted in large population in North Plains
  • Industrialization and urbanization
  • Metro cities of India have high concentration of population due to industrial development and urbanization.
  • A large numbers of rural-urban migrants come to these towns


Phases of Growth of Indian Population

  • 1901-1921 Referred as a period of stationary phase of growth of India’s population 
  • 1911-1921 Even recorded a negative growth rate
  • Both the birth rate and death rate were high
  • Major causes Poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large, & inefficient distribution system of food 
  • 1921-1951 Referred as the period of steady population growth
  • An overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country
  • Better transport and communication system improved distribution system
  • The crude birth rate remained high in this period leading to higher growth rate than the previous phase 
  • 1951-1981 Referred as the period of population explosion in India
  • Caused by a rapid fall in the death rate but a high birth rate
  • The average annual growth rate was as high as 2.2 %
  • High birth rate was due to better living conditions & scientific developments
  • Due to increased international immigration from Tibet, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan; India’s growth rate exploded 
  • After 1981 till present, the growth rate has started slowing down gradually
  • Due to decline in crude birth rate
  • Due to an increase in the mean age at marriage
  • Improvement in female literacy & empowerment
  • Better scientific developments & access to common man


Problems due to Higher Population in India

  • Unemployment
  • Poverty
  • Uneven Migration
  • Urbanization problems
  • Regional disparities
  • Increase in crime rate
  • Environmental Degradation


Impact of population growth on the Indian Economy

  • Adverse effects on savings
  • Unproductive investment
  • Slow growth of Per Capita Income
  • Underutilization of labour
  • Growing pressure on land
  • Adverse effect on quality of population
  • Adverse social impact


Tribes of India

  • Officially recognized by the Indian government as “Scheduled Tribes” in the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India
  • Often grouped together with scheduled castes in the category “Scheduled Castes and Tribes”
  • Eligible for certain constitutional benefits & perks


The Constitution of India, Article 366 (25) defines Scheduled Tribes as “such tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to the scheduled Tribes (STs) for the purposes of this Constitution”.

Tribe State
Jarawa, Onge, Sentinelese Andman
Shorn Pens, Holchu Nicobar
Palaeo Mongoloids Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur
Tibeto -Mongoloids Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh
Mundas, Santhals, Oraons Chhotanagpur Plateau
Gonds, Kondhs Central Vindhyachal + Deccan Plateau
Gaddi, Kinner, Phangwal, Lahuli Himachal Pradesh
Jaunsari, Bhotia, Raji, Buxa, Tharu Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
Anal, Chiru, Konkanas, Kollam Maharashtra
Mala and Savara tribes West Bengal
Bhuiya tribe Madhya Pradesh
Banjaras, Moghias and Sathiyas Rajasthan
Bhil + Maldhari (Gir lions) Gujrat
Oraon,  Munda, Chero, Parchaiya, Santhal, Asuras Bihar
Bhuiya, Baiga, Dharua, Gaaro, Ho, Koli, Lodha Orissa
Bakarwal J & K
Oorali, Sholagar, Irular and Badaga Tamil Nadu
Hakki-Pikki, Korgas,  Kurubas, Soliga Karnataka
Kadars, Irulars , Paniyans,  Korgas, ooralis Kerala

Common Features of Tribes 

Geographical isolation live in cloistered, exclusive, remote and inhospitable areas such as hills & forests
Backwardness livelihood based on primitive agriculture with low level of technology leading to povertyAre generally illiterate & unaware of world’s progress
Shyness of contact Have a marginal degree of contact with other cultures and people
Have distinctive culture, language and religion

Problems of Tribal People 

  • Poverty
  • Illiteracy
  • Unemployment
  • Dependence on forests
  • Excessive discrimination
  • Problem of land Alienation
  • Indebtedness
  • Bonded labour
  • Malnutrition & other health related problems

Now a days, Large development projects undertaken by the government also encroaches upon their land. Large scale displacements and unsatisfactory compensation and rehabilitation are common place, leading to further backwardness and seclusion. Because of their diversity they lack a common voice to bargain collectively

India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017

1 Comment

  1. thankyou very much to share the knowledge.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>