Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1672)

  • Prominent languages  Kannada, Telegu, Sanskrit
  • Consist of four major dynasties viz.
  • Sangam Dynasty
  • Saluva Dynasty
  • Tulva Dynasty
  • Aravidu Dynasty

Vijayanagar Empire

Sangam Dynasty

  • Founded by Harihara & Bukka
  • Greatest Ruler Devaraya 2  Srirangam Copper Plate inscription ascribed to him


Saluva Dynasty

  • Founded by Saluva Narsimha


Tulva Dynasty

  • Founded by Vir Narsimha
  • Greatest Ruler Krishanadeva Raya
  • Friendly with Portuguese
  • Known as Andhra Bhoja
  • Patronized 8 eminent scholars in his court (Astadiggaja)
  • Greatest of them was Peddana (Also known as Andhra Kavita Pitamah)



  • Pedanna wrote Manucharitam, Harikatha saram (both in Telegu)
  • Krishanadeva Raya wrote : Amukhamaldaya (Telegu), Jambavti kalyanam + Ushaparinayam (Sanskrit)


Architecture by Krishanadeva Raya

  • Vitthalswami & Hazara ramswami temple @ vijayanagar @ Hamphi
  • Built city Nagalapuram in memory of her queen Nagaladevi

Vithala Temple

Points of Prominence (Vijayanagar Empire)

  • Sangam Dynasty  Saivite with Chief Deity – Virupaksha
  • Other Dynasties  →  Vaisnavite (Saluva, Tuluva & Aravidu) mainly follower of Ramanujam
  • Tolerant towards other religions  Borbosa referred to Religious freedom to everyone
  • Madurvijayam  Written by Ganagadevi for Kumarkampana’s expedition of Madurai
  • Abdul Razzak (Persian traveler) gave an account of Vijayanagar Empire


Vijaynagar empire was divided in to Mandalams (Headed by Mandaleshwara / nayaks), which was further divided into Nadus, which was further divided into Sthalas & finally into Gramas

Empire —- Mandalams —– Nadus —– Sthalas —– Grama

  • Land revenue was 1/6th of the produce
  • Gold coin Varaha
  • Port  Connanore (Malabar Coast)


Foreign Travelers

  • Ibn Batuta            Moroccan
  • Nicolo-de-Conti   Venetian
  • Abdul Razzak      Persian
  • Domingos Paes    Portuguese


Temple Building Style of Vijayanagar Empire

  • Vesara style of temple architecture  Tall gopurams with large kalyanmandapam along with pillars
  • Example  Vradhraja & Ekam Parantha temple @ Kanchipuram
  • Famous Elephant chariot architecture belongs to Hampi Ruins

Famous Elephant chariot Hampi

India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017


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