Shivaji (1627 – 1680)

  • Born at Shivner (Father  →  Shahji Bhosale,  Mother  →  Jija Bai)
  • Inherited Jagir of Poona from his father in 1637
  • Continuous fight with Aurangzeb
  • Shaishta khan captured Poona but Shivaji reclaimed it
  • Aurangzeb sent Raja jai Singh of Amber, who besieged Purander fort  Treaty of Purander, 1665
  • Treaty of Purander  Shivaji surrendered 23 / 35 forts to Mughals & said to be loyal to Mughal empire
  • In 1674, Shivaji recaptured all his lost territory & crowned himself at Raigarh assuming the title of Chhtrapati



  • King was pivot at the center, led by COM’s called “Astapradhan”


  • Peshwa                                    →  Finance & General administrator (Later became PM)
  • Amatya                                    →  Accountant General
  • Sar – i – Naubat / Senapati    → Military commander
  • Waqnavis                                →  Intelligence & Household affairs
  • Sachiv                                     → Correspondence
  • Sumanta                                 →  Master of ceremonies
  • Nyayadhish                            → Justice Chief
  • Pandit Rao                             → Charities & Religious admin


  • Appointed his own revenue official “Karkuns” diminishing the power of existing Deshmukhs & Kulkarnis

Maratha Empire 1795


  • From neighboring kingdoms of Mughals & Deccan
  • Chauth           →  1 / 4  of the land revenue to Marathas (for not attacking them & keeping safe)
  • Deshmukhis  →  levy of 1/10  on lands Marathas claimed hereditary rights (Maratha land)


Peshwas (1713 – 1818)

  • Balaji Vishvanath  →  Under Maratha ruler Shahu
  • Baji Rao                →  Under Maratha ruler Shahu
  • Balaji Baji Rao     →  Became king & ruler of Marathas (Shahu Died)


Agreement with Mughals

  • Balaji Bajirao came into agreement with Mughals in 1752
  • Protection of Mughals in exchange of revenue (Chauth) from Northern provinces


3rd Battle of Panipat

  • Ahmed shah Abdali vs Balaji Bajirao
  • When Ahmed shah Abdali invaded India, Marathas fought for Mughals
  • Balaji Bajirao got defeated & died in 3rd battle of Panipat
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017


  1. thankyou very much to share the knowledge.

  2. I was not knowing the writer of this article. But Thank you for giving such simplified news.
    With the help of your work, i can simply gothrough the overview of marthas in just 3 mints.

  3. Thank you sir. Its very useful material. Please do it for Economy and Polity also.

    • Will do soon, currently writing Geography articles!

  4. sir really u r doing a tremendous work for the ias aspirants.really head off to u for ur selfless work………..

  5. sir, really u r doing a tremendous work for the ias aspirants.head off to u sir

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