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Mughal Empire


Mughal Empire

Babur (1526 – 1530)

  • Mughal Empire was founded by Babar
  • 1st battle of Panipat (21st April 1526)

 

  • B/w Babur & Ibrahim Lodi
  • Lodi was Killed
  • Babur occupied Delhi

 

  • Babar sent his son Humayu to seize Agra; & Claimed himself “ Emperor of Hindustan”
  • Battle of Khanua (Near Agra  1527)

 

  • Babur V/S Rana Sanga of Mewar
  • Babur won the battle & assumed the title of Ghazi

 

  • Babur wrote his memoirs in “Tuzuk – i – Baburi in Turki language & died in 1530

 


Humayu (1530 – 1540)

  • Eldest son of Babur; means fortunate but was most unfortunate ruler of Mughal empire
  • Gave Kabul & Kandhar to Kamran; Sambhal to Aksari & Alwar to Hindal (All 3 his brothers)

 

Humayun  →  Busy fighting with Afgans (Sher khan / Sher shah) in east, got the news that Bahadur shah of Gujrat was advancing towards Delhi  →  Hence made treaty with Sher shah

Humayu captured Gujrat from Bahadur shah & made Aksari its governor, but soon Bahadur shah recovered it from Aksari who fled from their

Battle of Chausa (1539)

  • Between Humayu & Sher Shah
  • Sher Shah destroyed Mughal army
  • Humayu fled from there

Battle of Kannauj or Bilgram (1540)

  • Between Humayu & Sher Shah
  • Brothers’ dint supported Humayu, hence he fought alone
  • Humayu was thoroughly defeated by Sher shah
  • Result   Humayu became exile for next 15 years 

 


Sur interregnum (1540 – 1555)

  • Founded by Sher Shah; became ruler of Delhi in 1540
  • Formed 4 ministries for central administration viz.

 

  • Diwan – i – Wazirat   →  Headed by Wazir (Incharge of finance & revenue)
  • Diwan – i – Ariz        →  Headed by Military Incharge
  • Diwan – i – Rasalat  → Headed by Foreign minister
  • Diwan – i – Insha    →  Headed by Communication minister

Administration

  • Sher Shah empire was divided in 47 Sarkars with

 

  • Chief Shiqdar to maintain law & order in each sarkar
  • Chief Munsif as Judge in each Sarkar

 

  • Each Sarkar was divided into Parganas with each pargana consisted of

 

  • Shiqdars  →  Military officer
  • Amin         →  Land revenue officer
  • Fotedar     →  Treasurer
  • Karkuns    →  Accountant

Architecture

  • Introduced new silver coins called ‘Dam’ which were in circulation till 1835
  • Laid foundation of 4 important highways & constituted rest houses alongside highways viz.

 

  • Sonargaon to Sind
  • Agra to Burhampur
  • Jodhpur to Chittor
  • Lahore to Multan

 

  • Built a new city on banks of river Yamuna near Delhi (Purana quila & its mosque are remains of the same)
  • Built Mausoleum at Sasaram  Considered one of the masterpiece of Indian Architecture
  • Patronized Malik Muhammad Jayasi who wrote famous Hindi work Padmavat during his reign


Humayun (1555 – 1556)

  • Humayun defeated Afgans in 1555
  • Died in 1556 after falling from the staircase of his library 

 


Akbar (1556 – 1605)

  • During 1st five years of Akbars reign, Bairam khan acted as his regent & consolidated Mughal empire
  • 2nd battle of Panipat

 

  • Between Akbar & Hemu (Commander of Afgans)
  • Akbar emerged victorious with the help of Bairam Khan

 

  • Akbar married Rajput princess Jodha, daughter of Raja Bhairomal of Amber
  • This marriage became a turning point in the history of Mughals, as Rajputs supported them now
  • Many Rajputs like Raja Man singh & Raja Bhagwan Das were given senior position in Akbar’s court
  • Battle of Haldighati, 1576

 

  • Between Akbar and Maharana Pratap of Mewar
  • Mughals under the leadership of Raja Man singh defeated Rana Pratap of Mewar

 

  • Akbar was very tolerant towards religious policies  abolished pilgrim tax & later Jiziya
  • He formed a strong alliance b/w Mughals & Rajputs which ensured peace in Rajasthan & Northern India

Growth of Mughal Emire

Akbars’ Religious Touch

  • Early contact with Sufi saints
  • Teachings from his teacher Abdul Latif
  • His marriage with Rajput princess
  • His association with intellectual giant like Shaikh Mubarak & his 2 sons – Abul Faizi & Abul Fazal
  • After marrying Jodha Bai, he abolished pilgrimage tax & Jiziga
  • Allowed his Hindu wife to worship her own God
  • He was a pious Muslim in his early life but later became a skeptic one
  • Constructed Ibadat khana (house of worship where scholars from all religion meet to discuss religious policies) at his new capital Fatehpur sikri
  • Invited learned scholars from all religions to discuss religious policies
  • Disliked the interference of Muslim Ulemas in political matters
  • In 1579, He issued infallibility decree & asserted his religious powers
  • In 1582, he promulgated a new religion “Din – i – Ilahi” or divine faith in one god
  • Din – i – Ilahi contained good points of all the religions & uphold no dogma
  • Din – i – Ilahi mainly aimed to bridge gap b/w all religions (Only 15 followers joined including Birbal)

Akbars’ Land Revenue system

  • Land revenue system of Akbar was known as Zabti / Bandobast system
  • Further modified by Raja Todarmal, now known as Dahsala system which included

 

  • Measurement of land
  • Revenue fixed on average yield of last 10 years
  • Land divided into four categories viz.

 

Polaj Cultivated every year
Parauti Cultivated every 2 years
Chachar Cultivated every 3 – 4 years
Banjar Cultivated every 5 years

 

Mansabdari system of Akbar

  • Under this system, every officer was assigned a Rank (Mansab)
  • Lowest officer got 10 coins & highest officers (Nobles) got 5000 coins for their services
  • Includes all public services except Judiciary
  • Ranks were divided into 2 categories, namely

 

  • Zat        →  Described the personal status of a person
  • Sawar   →  Number of cavalry man a person is required to maintain


Jahangir (1605 – 1627)

  • Prince Salim succeeded the throne with the title Jahangir (Conqueror of the world)
  • Witness rebellions from his son Khusaro, but was defeated & imprisoned
  • Beheaded 5th Sikh Guru Arjun dev
  • In 1611, Married Mehrunnisa (Nurjaha Light of the world)
  • Wrote his Autobiography  Tuzuk – i – Jahagiri


Shahjaha (1627 – 1658)

  • Married Mumtaj (Banu Begum)
  • Conquered Deccan (Bijapur & Golkunda and put it under the leadership of his son Aurangzeb)
  • Later, Aurangzeb killed his 3 brothers & confined Shahjaha to female apartments in Agra fort
  • Though Aurangzeb never ill-treated Shahjaha


Aurangzeb (1658 – 1707)

  • Assumed the title Alamgir (or World Conqueror)
  • To contain Marathas (Shivaji), he attacked Golkunda & Bijapur (Deccan Shias)
  • Though Aurangzeb defeated them but it removed the only boundary b/w Marathas & Mughals
  • According to JN Sarkar, Deccan ulcer ruined Aurangzeb

Mughal Empire Timeline

Religious Policies of Aurangzeb

  • Very orthodox & staunch Muslim; tried to change India into an Islamic state
  • Created separate departments to enforce moral codes called Muhtasib’

 

  • Prohibited drinking, cultivation & use of Bhang & drugs
  • Forbid music in Mughal court, Dismissed royal astrologers & astronomers
  • Discontinued practice of Jharoka darshan
  • Discontinued celebration of Dussehra

 

  • Destroyed Hindu temples & banned construction of them
  • Reimposed Jiziya & pilgrimage tax (in 1679)
  • Stopped celebration of Muharram (Not tolerant towards other Muslim sects)
  • Was against Sikhs & executed 9th Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur, which resulted transformation of sikhs into warring community

 

His religious policies turned Rajputs, Sikhs, Marathas, Jats & Satnamis against him & hence became the sole reason for decline of Mughal Empire

Personality & Character of Aurangzeb

  • Very simple in dressing & food; Very disciplined & industrious
  • Earned money for personal expenses by copying Quran & selling those copies
  • Did not consume wine, learned & proficient in Arabic & Persian language
  • Lover of books, strict follower of Islam
  • Daily Namaz for 5 times & strictly observed Ramzan
  • Overall an orthodox Muslim intolerant to other religions

 

“After Aurangzeb’s death Nadir shah looted Delhi & imprisoned new Mughal emperor in 1739″


Architecture under Mughals

Emperor Monument Place
Akbar Agra fort using Red Stone Agra
Panch Mahal – build on the pattern of a Buddhist Vihara Fatehpur Sikri
Jama masjid with gateway Buland Darwaza – On Gujrat’s victory Fatehpur Sikri
Humayu Tomb – Precursor of Tajmahal Delhi
Jahangir Shalimar Bagh Srinagar
Akbar’s Tomb Sikandara near Agra
Itimaddaulah Tomb (Pietra dura style by Nurjaha) Agra
 

Shahjaha

Red Fort Delhi
Jama Masjid using Red stone Delhi
Moti Masjid Agra
Diwan – i – am Under Red Fort (Delhi)
Diwan – i – Khas Under Red Fort (Delhi)
Nishat Bagh (By Asif khan,  Brother of Nurjaha) Srinagar
Aurangzeb Pinjore Garden Lahore
Moti Masjid with white marble Delhi

 


Painting & Music

  • Akbarnama was the main theme of Mughal paintings
  • Hamznama was the most important work of Mughals time consisting 1200 paintings
  • Tansen (From gwalior) was a great musician in Akbar’s court


Literature

  • Abul Fazal  →  Ain – i – Akbari , Akbarnama   (Persian Language)
  • Abul Faizi  →  Converted Mahabharata into Persian language (Leading poet of Akbar’s Court)
  • Abdul Hamid Lahori  Padshah Nama (Shahjaha’s Court)
  • Inayat Khan  →  Shahjaha Naha (Shahjaha’s Court)
  • Dara Shikoh (Eldest son of Shahjaha)  Converted Bhagvat Gita & Upanishads into Persian

Trivia

  • During 17th century, two new crops “Tobacco & Maize” were added
  • Potato & Chili came later in 18th century
  • Ghee & oils were cheaper; Salts & sugar were more expensive

 

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