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Delhi Sultanate → Slave Dynasty (1206 – 1290)

Slave dynasty (Mamluk dynasty) was mainly sum up of 3 small dynasties, namely

  • Qutubi Dynasty (1206 – 1211)     →  By Qutubuddin Aibak
  • 1st Ilbari Dynasty (1211 – 1246)   →  By Iltutmish
  • 2nd Ilbari Dynasty (1246 – 1290)   By Balban

 


Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 -1210)

  • At the death of Muhammad Ghori, Aibak declared his independence & setup his own rule at Indraprastha, near Delhi
  • He severed all connections with Ghori kingdom & founded slave dynasty as well as Delhi sultanate
  • Assumed the title of Sultan & made Lahore his capital
  • Also known as Lakh bakhsh by Muslim writers due to his charity of 1 lakh coins to them
  • Patronised great scholar “Hasan Nizami” & started construction of famous Qutub minar named after famous Sufi saint Khwaja – i – Qutubuddin- Bakthiyar (Minar was later completed by Iltutmish)
  • Died Playing Chaugan (Horse polo) in 1210

 


Iltutmish (1211 – 1236)

  • Belonged to Ilbari tribe hence his dynasty is named Ilbari dynasty. His half-brothers sold him to Aibak who made him, his son-in-law & appointed him as ‘Iqtadar of Gwalior’
  • In 1211, Iltutmish defeated Aram Bakhsh (Son of Aibak) & became sultan
  • Shifted capital from Lahore to Delhi, Completed Qutub Minar at Delhi & Built Ajmer Sharif mosque
  • Introduced Arabic coinage silver taka (175 gm) coin in India which became the basis of modern rupee
  • Started a new class of ruling elites of 40 powerful military leaders known as “the 40 nobles” or Chahalgani
  • It was under his reign that Mongols under Changez khan raided Central Asia

 


Razia Sultana (1236 – 1240)

  • Appointed Abyssinian slave Yakuth as master of royal horses
  • Discarded female cloths & held court with face unveiled
  • Altunia, Governor of Bhatinda, revolted against her & captured her as prisoner but later married her
  • Razia, proceeded to Delhi to regain her control but got defeated & killed

Slave Dynasty


Balban (1246 – 1287)

  • Introduced rigorous court discipline & started new customs such as Prostration (Shijada & Paipos rule) & kissing sultan’s feet to prove his supremacy over nobles
  • Introduced Persian festival of Navroj to impress the nobles
  • Spared only the most loyal nobles (Chahalganis) & eliminated all others by one mean or other
  • Established a separate military department “Diwan – i –Arz” to maintain law & order
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017

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