Ghaznavids  Mahmud of Gazni & Muhammad Ghori

Ghaznavids (1000 – 1200 AD)

  • Islam  Founded in Mecca by prophet muhammad (622 AD)
  • 622 AD  Starting point of Muslim calender
  • Later, Profet moved to Madina & this Muslim era was called Hijra
  • Followers of prophet set up an empire known as Caliphate
  • Umayyads & Abbasids were called Caliphs (Arabs)


Mahmud of Gazni

  • Around 900 AD, Caliphate declined & Turkish established independent kingdoms
  • Mahmud of Gazni is said to have made 17 raids to India, mainly aimed at rich temples & cities of North India
  • North Indian frontier Hindu Shahi kingdom of Jayapala (Punjab to Kabul) was defeated in 1001 AD
  • His successor Anandpala also got defeated in battle of Waihind (1008 AD).
  • In battle of Waihind, Anandpala was supported by Rulers of Kannauj & Rajasthan; as a result Mahmud got his rule established over almost all over Punjab


Famous Poets Patronized by Mahmud of Gazni

  • Firdausi  →  Wrote Shahnamah
  • Alberuni  Wrote Kitab-i-Hind

Muhammad Ghori

  • After death of Mahmud, Ghori succeeded to the throne of Ghazni
  • In 1186, He attacked Punjab & captured it from “Khusro Malik”, annexing it to his dominions
  • Realizing the urgency of situation, North Indian Hindu princes formed a confederacy under the command of Prithvi Raj Chauhan
  • Prithvi raj chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori in Battle of Tarain, near Delhi in 1191
  • Again, Muhammad Ghori gathered a vast army & sent message to Prithvi raj chauhan to be a Muslim & accept his supremacy but Chauhan rejected his terms.
  • In 1192, in 2nd battle of Tarain , Prithvi raj Chauhan was captured & killed, marking the establishment of 1st Muslim kingdom rule over Ajmer in India
  • Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghazni leaving his general Qutubuddin Aibak to make further conquests in India  Aibak captured Delhi & Meerut and in 1193
  • Ghori invaded Jayachandra “Ruler of Kannauj” in battle of Chandwar or Ghardawala & annexed it, setting Turkish rule in North India


Delhi Sultanet

Muslim invasion in India resulted in establishment of Delhi Sultanet (1206 – 1526) which mainly consisted of 5 different dynasties

Dynasty Prominent Rulers
Slave dynasty Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultana, Balban
Khilji dynasty Jalaluddin Khalji, Alaunddin Khalji
Tughlaq dynasty Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad – Bin – Tughlaq, Firoz Tughlaq
Sayyid dynasty Khirz khan, Alam Shah
Lodi dynasty Bahlol lodi, Sikandar lodi, Ibrahim Lodi

Delhi Sultanate India

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