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Rashtrakutas & Imperial Cholas


Deccan + Karnataka  →  975 AD Mother Tounge  →  Kannad
Capital  →  Manyakhet Great Kannad Poet  →  Pampa (Wrote Vikramasena Vijaya & Adi Purana)


  • Founder of Rashtrakutas kingdom
  • Defeated Pariharas annexed Malwa
  • Defeated & Annexed Chalukyas


Krishana 1

  • Annexed Chalukyas of Vengi (Eastern Chalukyas)
  • Built Monolithic Ellora temple Kailasha temple  Dravidian Style

Kailash Temple


  • Ruled for 64 Years  Follower of Jainism
  • Chief Teacher  Jinasena (Wrote Parshavabudaya)
  • Wrote 1st Kannada book  Kavirajmarga
  • Built capital Malkhed (Manyakhet) to its zenith


Krishana 3

  • Last prominent Rashtrakuta ruler
  • Built Krishaneshwara Temple at Rameshwaram
  • After his death Rastrakutas power declined & Chalukya of kalyani took over


Administration of Rashtrakutas

  • Empire was divided into several provinces called Rashtras under the control of Rashtrapati
  • Rashtras were further divided into Districts called vishayas, goverened by Vishayapatis
  • Next subdivision was Bukti (Consiting of 50 – 70 villages ) under charge of Bhogpatis
  • Each village was headed by village headmen who in turn was helped by village elders called Grama Mahajana or Grama Mahattara
  • Law & order was responsibility of Kosta – pala or Kotwal
  • Hereditary Revenue Officer  Nav Gavundas or Desa Gramakutas



  • Vaishnavism & Shaivism prominently flourished
  • Jainism & Buddhism along with Muslims were welcomed & allowed to preach their faith
  • Famous Temples  Kailash temple at Ellora, Krishaneshwara temple at Rameshwaram
  • Famous Caves     Elephanta Caves at Mumbai

Imperial Cholas (900 -1200 AD)


  • Founder of Chola Dynasty
  • Capital  Tanjore
  • Built Durga Temple at Tanjore


Rajaraja 1 (Shaivist)

  • Defeated Cheras (Trivendrum), Pandayas & Annexed Northern Srilanka
  • Conquered Maldieves & Chalukya of Kalyani (Who succeeded Rashtrakutas)
  • Built Famous Rajeshwara/Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore (Dravida Style) in 1010 AD


Rajendra 1 (Shaivist)

  • Defeated southern Srilanka & annexed whole Srilanka
  • Moved north & Captured till Bengal defeating Mahipala 1; Assumed title of Gangaikonda chola
  • Conquered Malay Peninsula & converted Bay of Bengal to Chola lake for trading purposes with China
  • Found new capital Gangaikondacholapuram at Kaveri & Built famous Gangaikondachola Temple ( Dravida style)

Chola Empire


  • Chola Empire was divided into Mandalams or provinces
  • Mandalams were further divided into Valanadu or Nathus (Number of villages)
  • Local self-government in villages with mainly two assemblies Ur & Sabha (or Mahasabha)
  • Ur  →  General assembly of the village
  • Mahasabha  Gathering of adult men in Brahamdeya villages called Agraharas

Culture & Religion

  • Prevalent cast system as Brahamanas & Kshatriyas enjoyed powers
  • Shaivism & Vaishnavism flourished & a number of temples & Mathas (educational centres) were built
  • Shaivism saints were known as Nayanars & Vishnu saints as Alvars
  • Famous Temples → Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur by Rajraja 1, Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram by Rajraja 2, Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram by Rajendra 1


Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore


Dravida was the main style of building temples viz.

  • 5 -7 story building above Girbhagriha (Chief deity room) Vimana Style 
  • Gopurams (Lofty gates)
  • Mandap (pillars) with big hall for audiences & ceremonies
  • Ceremonies performed by Devadasis (Women dedicated to God
  • Example → Kailashnath temple of Kanchipuram
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