Rashtrakutas & Imperial Cholas


Deccan + Karnataka  →  975 AD Mother Tounge  →  Kannad
Capital  →  Manyakhet Great Kannad Poet  →  Pampa (Wrote Vikramasena Vijaya & Adi Purana)


  • Founder of Rashtrakutas kingdom
  • Defeated Pariharas annexed Malwa
  • Defeated & Annexed Chalukyas


Krishana 1

  • Annexed Chalukyas of Vengi (Eastern Chalukyas)
  • Built Monolithic Ellora temple Kailasha temple  Dravidian Style

Kailash Temple


  • Ruled for 64 Years  Follower of Jainism
  • Chief Teacher  Jinasena (Wrote Parshavabudaya)
  • Wrote 1st Kannada book  Kavirajmarga
  • Built capital Malkhed (Manyakhet) to its zenith


Krishana 3

  • Last prominent Rashtrakuta ruler
  • Built Krishaneshwara Temple at Rameshwaram
  • After his death Rastrakutas power declined & Chalukya of kalyani took over


Administration of Rashtrakutas

  • Empire was divided into several provinces called Rashtras under the control of Rashtrapati
  • Rashtras were further divided into Districts called vishayas, goverened by Vishayapatis
  • Next subdivision was Bukti (Consiting of 50 – 70 villages ) under charge of Bhogpatis
  • Each village was headed by village headmen who in turn was helped by village elders called Grama Mahajana or Grama Mahattara
  • Law & order was responsibility of Kosta – pala or Kotwal
  • Hereditary Revenue Officer  Nav Gavundas or Desa Gramakutas



  • Vaishnavism & Shaivism prominently flourished
  • Jainism & Buddhism along with Muslims were welcomed & allowed to preach their faith
  • Famous Temples  Kailash temple at Ellora, Krishaneshwara temple at Rameshwaram
  • Famous Caves     Elephanta Caves at Mumbai

Imperial Cholas (900 -1200 AD)


  • Founder of Chola Dynasty
  • Capital  Tanjore
  • Built Durga Temple at Tanjore


Rajaraja 1 (Shaivist)

  • Defeated Cheras (Trivendrum), Pandayas & Annexed Northern Srilanka
  • Conquered Maldieves & Chalukya of Kalyani (Who succeeded Rashtrakutas)
  • Built Famous Rajeshwara/Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore (Dravida Style) in 1010 AD


Rajendra 1 (Shaivist)

  • Defeated southern Srilanka & annexed whole Srilanka
  • Moved north & Captured till Bengal defeating Mahipala 1; Assumed title of Gangaikonda chola
  • Conquered Malay Peninsula & converted Bay of Bengal to Chola lake for trading purposes with China
  • Found new capital Gangaikondacholapuram at Kaveri & Built famous Gangaikondachola Temple ( Dravida style)

Chola Empire


  • Chola Empire was divided into Mandalams or provinces
  • Mandalams were further divided into Valanadu or Nathus (Number of villages)
  • Local self-government in villages with mainly two assemblies Ur & Sabha (or Mahasabha)
  • Ur  →  General assembly of the village
  • Mahasabha  Gathering of adult men in Brahamdeya villages called Agraharas

Culture & Religion

  • Prevalent cast system as Brahamanas & Kshatriyas enjoyed powers
  • Shaivism & Vaishnavism flourished & a number of temples & Mathas (educational centres) were built
  • Shaivism saints were known as Nayanars & Vishnu saints as Alvars
  • Famous Temples → Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur by Rajraja 1, Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram by Rajraja 2, Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram by Rajendra 1


Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore


Dravida was the main style of building temples viz.

  • 5 -7 story building above Girbhagriha (Chief deity room) Vimana Style 
  • Gopurams (Lofty gates)
  • Mandap (pillars) with big hall for audiences & ceremonies
  • Ceremonies performed by Devadasis (Women dedicated to God
  • Example → Kailashnath temple of Kanchipuram
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017


  1. thankyou very much to share the knowledge.

  2. need pdf version of ancient medieval and modern india becoz we live in village we will not have sufficient power to read online every-time

  3. k

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