Natural Vegetation of India

  • Tropical Evergreen Rain Forests
  • Deciduous or Monsoon Type of Forests
  • Tropical dry Deciduous Forests
  • Arid Forests and Desert Vegetation
  • Tidal or Mangrove Forests
  • Mountain Forests

Natural Vegetation of India

Tropical Evergreen Forests
  • Av. Rainfall Above 200 cm
  • Av. Temp. 24* C
  • Found at Hot & Humid areas of India
  • Tall & Dense 45 – 60 m
  • Hardwood Forests
  • Found at WGs, A & N islands & Eastern India
  • Sunrays unable to reach earth surface
  • Trees compete & rise high to get sunlight
  • Ex. Rubber, Coconut, Ebony, Mahogany, Palms
Deciduous Forests
  • Av. Rainfall 100 -200 cm
  • Av. Height 25 – 45 m
  • Shed their leaves in summers due to shortage of water
  • Found at Shiwaliks, Ganga valley, WGs, NE India
  • Economically very important forests
  • Ex. Sal, Teak, Shisham, Sandalwood, Deodar, Mahua
Tropical dry Forests
  • Av. Rainfall 50 – 100 cm
  • Less dense & Small in size 6 – 9 m
  • Roots are thick & long to use underground water
  • Thick Bark to prevent undue evaporation
  • Found at Punjab, Haryana, MP, Eastern Rajasthan, Central Deccan Plateau
  • Most of the areas are used for agriculture
  • Dwarf Deciduous trees and long- grasses grow in these regions
  • Ex. Neem, Shisham, Babul, Pipal, Mango

Forests of India

Arid or Desert Forests
  • Av. Rainfall < 50 cm
  • Prominent features Small leaves, Thick Bark, Long Roots
  • Indian wild date is common in these deserts
  • Found at Western Rajasthan, SW Haryana & Punjab, In some parts of Gujrat
  • Ex. Small sized kikar, Babul, Acacia, Bushes & Shrubs
Tidal Forests
  • These forests grow along the coast and on the edges of the deltas
  • Famous for Mangrove & Sundari Trees
  • Consists of thick Bushes & Ferns
  • Known as Halophytes Tolerant of Salinity
  • Found at Sundarbans, A & N Islands, Deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna & Kavery
Mountain forests
  • Mountain forests vary considerably along the slopes of mountain
  • On the foothills of Himalayas, upto a height of 1500 meters, evergreen trees, (Sal, teak, bamboo and cane) grow abundantly.
  • On higher slope between 1,500 meters to 3,500 meters, temperate conifer trees (pine, fir, oak, maple, deodar, laurel spruce, cedar) grow.
  • At the higher altitude of the Himalayas, rhododendrons and junipers are found.
  • Beyond these vegetation belts, alpine grasslands appear up to snowfield.

Forest Cover of India

Forest Cover of India



  • 34 Percent geographical area under forest cover till 2015
  • The total forested area in India is about 63.73 million hectares.
  • In the last 10 years, forest cover in the country has increased by 3.31 million hectares, showing an average 0.46% increase every year.

Problems of Forestry

Over grazing Forest Fire Reckless Cutting of Trees Jhum Cultivation

Government Initiatives

  • Reserve & Protected forests
  • Van Mahotsav Programme Thousands of trees are planted every year in the months of July and August
  • Forest Research Institute at Dehradun For promotion and preservation the forests properly
  • National Forest policy


National Forest Policy, 1988

  • Conservation of Biodiversity, Afforestation & Check of soil erosion
  • 33 % Geographical area shall be forest covered
  • Develop Social Forestry (Agro Forestry, Community Forestry & Forestry by officials)


Social Forestry

  • Mainly to reduce pressure on traditional forests by planting trees esp. for fuel wood, Timber & other social supplies
  • Help in checking water and wind erosion by acting as shelter belts
  • Employment & additional income generation
Agro Forestry
  • Planting trees & agricultural crops together on farms for food, fuel, fodder, timber & fruits
  • Forestry + Agriculture
  • Trees bind soil and acts as shelter belts thus check soil erosion
  • Deep roots of trees trap new nutrients and bring them close to the surface
  • Leguminous trees fix atmospheric nitrogen, thus improves fertility of the soil
  • Soil nutrient increases due to addition and deposition of leaf litter 
Community Forestry
  • Trees Planted by community in their respected colonies 
Forestry by officials
  • Trees planted by forest departments to cater needs of community esp. along Roads, canals, Railways etc. 

Forest Protection by Government officials

Reserved Forests
  • Under direct supervision of the government
  • Area notified under the provisions of FRA
  • No public entry is allowed for collection of timber or grazing
  • About 54 % of total forest area
  • Has full degree of protection
  • All activities are prohibited unless permitted
Protected Forests
  • Area notified under the provisions of FRA
  • All activities are permitted unless prohibited
  • Looked after by the gov.
  • Has limited degree of protection
  • Local people are allowed to collect fuel wood, timber & to graze their animals without causing serious damage to the forests
  • About 29 % of total forest area
Unprotected Forests
  • No restriction on cutting trees or cattle grazing
  • About 18 % of total forest area

Forest & Wildlife Protection Programmes by Government

National Park

  • Relatively large area consisting of one or more ecosystems, operates at National Level
  • No human activity or settlement allowed i.e. human interference is totally prohibited
  • Villagers cannot graze their animals + Extremely strict rules about jungle produce collection for ex. Honey


Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Regulated human activities are allowed Grazing of animals, Firewood collection, Tourism
  • can be created for a particular specie which is not the case with national; operates at State Level
  • A sanctuary can be upgraded to a National park but not vice versa


Biosphere Reserve

  • Unique ecosystem of terrestrial & coastal areas internationally recognized by UNESCO under Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme
  • People are allowed to live, own private land & carry own traditional activities but only in outer zone

Biosphere research

Core zone Central area that has to be kept undisturbed of all activities except research (which don’t disturb wildlife)
Buffer zone Some light activities like tourism, fishing, grazing etc. are allowed which don’t disturb the core zone. Research activities are encouraged here
Transition zone Outmost part & not delimited but activities have to be harmonious with the biosphere reserve

Conservation Reserves

  • Can be declared by the State Governments in any area owned by the government
  • Particularly the areas adjacent to National Parks and Sanctuaries and those areas which link one Protected Area with another
  • Such declaration should be made after having consultations with the local communities


Community Reserves

  • Can be declared by the State Government in any private or community land, not comprised within a National Park, Sanctuary or a Conservation Reserve
  • Mainly where an individual or a community has volunteered to conserve wildlife and its habitat
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017


  1. thankyou very much to share the knowledge.

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