Mars Orbiter Mission India (Mangalyaan)

Few Facts About Planet Mars

  • Mars has two moons viz. Phobos and Deimos
  • One Martian year is of 687 days
  • Mars gravity is 1/3rd  of Earth
  • One Martian day equals 24 hours 37 minutes



  • Launch vehicle PSLV (Polar satellite launch vehicle) from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh
  • First Indian spacecraft to cross Earth’s escape velocity of 11.2 km per second


Why Mangalyaan was sent to Mars?

Purpose Device To Study
Surface Study Color Camera
  • Surface, dust storms etc.
  • Take photos of Mar’s satellites Phobos and Deimos
Atmosphere MENCA
  • Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer
  • To study neutral gas atoms in the Martian atmosphere
Methane Sensor
  • Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM)
  • If methane + water detected It’s possible that at some point of time, Mars had supported life form
  • Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) To Measure hydrogen and deuterium
  • Knowing Hydrogen : Deuterium ratio will help answer how did water vanish from Mars
Minerals Spectrometer
  • Thermal Infrared Imaging spectrometer (TIS)
  • To study mineral resources of Mars

Mars Orbiter Mission  India (Mangalyaan)

ISTRAC (ISRO Telemetry, Tracking & Command Network) – Bangalore

  • Previously tracked and commanded Chandrayaan -1
  • Also did tracking for Mars orbiter Mangalyaan mission


Lunar Missions India – Chandrayaan

Chandrayaan 1

  • Launch vehicle PSLV (Polar satellite launch vehicle) from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh
  • India’s maiden moon exploration mission ‘Chandrayaan-1’ was launched in October 2008
  • for mapping the lunar surface with high resolution remote sensing
  • to study the chemical and mineralogical composition
  • This mission has enabled to detect the presence of Hydroxyl (OH), a molecule consisting of oxygen and hydrogen atoms and water molecules on the lunar surface, which has set new directions of lunar explorations in the global community.


Chandrayaan 2

  • Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and ISRO signed an agreement to work together on the Chandrayaan 2 project
  • ISRO would have the prime responsibility for the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos was to provide the lander.
  • Chandrayaan 2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan 1.
  • Developed by ISRO, the mission is planned to be launched to the Moon by a GSLV Mk III
  • India is planning to launch Chandrayaan-2 by 2018
  • The wheeled rover will move on the lunar surface and will pick up soil or rock samples for on-site chemical analysis.
  • The data will be relayed to Earth through the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter.


Few Famous Space Exploration Missions

Spacecraft Planet Agency
Apollo Moon NASA
Messenger Mercury NASA
Curiosity – Robotic Rover Mars NASA
Viking Mars NASA
Pioneer Jupiter NASA
Cassini Saturn NASA / ESA / ASI (Italy)
New Horizon Pluto NASA
Aditya (2017-18) Solar Corona ISRO
Rosetta Asteroids & Comets ESA (Europe)
Phoenix Collection of soil samples near the northern pole to search for water at Mars NASA
Mars Orbiter Mission Mars ISRO


Comet Mission – Philae

  • Europeans Rosetta spacecraft’s mission to study comets, landed a spacecraft on comet for the 1st time in history
  • Rosetta – took off from Earth 10 years ago carrying Philae & became the first spacecraft to orbit a comet
  • Philae – a robotic European Space Agency lander attached to Rosetta; transmit data from the surface about the comet’s composition


  • a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the Rosetta spacecraft until it landed on comet 67P
  • Rosetta →Mothership (spacecraft) orbiting Comet 67P Philae communicates with Rosetta which sends the received data to the earth


  • To focus on elemental, isotopic, molecular and mineralogical composition of the comet material
  • The large-scale structure and the magnetic and plasma environment of the nucleus
  • The mission seeks to unlock the long-held secrets of comets — primordial clusters of ice and dust that scientists believe may reveal how the Solar System was formed.
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017

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