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Delhi Sultanate → Tughlaq Dynasty, Sayyids Dynasty, Lodi Dynasty

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)

  • Founded by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
  • Laid foundation of Tughlaqabad near Delhi
  • Killed by his own son “Ulugh khan” who ascended throne under the name of Muhammad – bin – tughlaq in 1325

 


Muhammad – Bin – Tughlaq (ill-starred Idealist)

  • Known for his tolerant nature in religious matters & novel experiments
  • Only sultan who had received a literary, religious & philosophical education
  • Formed 2nd capital at Devagiri to control south India under the name of Daultabad
  • He forced royals, people & Sufis to move to Daultabad, but many of them died in rigorous journey (1500 Km)
  • After 2 years Sultan abandoned Daultabad & asked them to return to Delhi
  • Introduced copper coins at par value of silver Tanka but couldn’t prevent forgery, hence stopped the circulation of token money
  • Exchanged silver coins for all copper coins circulated in the market which led to vanish of royal treasury
  • To overcome financial difficulties, he imposed heavy tax revenue on land, which led to strong revolt from peasants (as at the same time a strong famine was also ravaging)
  • Later, Sultan launched a scheme by which “Takkavi loans” (Loan for cultivation) were given to farmers to buy seeds & to extend cultivation.
  • A separate department for agriculture “Diwan – i – Kolhi” was established. This experiment was further continued by Firoz Tughlaq
  • On Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s Death, Barani quoted “Finally sultan was freed from people & people from sultan”. He also called sultan as mixture of opposites.

 


Firoz Tughlaq

  • Appointed Khan – i – Jahan Maqbal, a telegu brahmin convert as Wazir of his kingdom to help him in day to day administration
  • Collected 1300 Sanskrit manuscripts from Jwalamukhi temple’s library (Himachal Pradesh) & got them converted into Persian
  • Revived Iqta system & made it hereditary (Nobles hereditary succession to their properties)
  • Had largest slaves in his period (Diwan-e-Bandagani)

Industries & Taxes

  • Levied various taxes  Jiziya on Non-Muslims
  • Abolished taxes on 28 items as was against the Islamic law
  • 1st sultan to impose irrigation tax
  • Developed irrigation network by means of canals & highly encouraged horticulture
  • Developed royal factories “Karkhanas”, in which thousands of slaves were employed
  • Introduced a department called Diwan – i – Khairat to take care of Orphans & Widows
  • Developed free hospitals & Marriage bureaus for poor Muslims

Art & Culture

  • Formed 300 new towns as Firozabad near Red fort (Delhi), Now known as Firozshah Kotla
  • Patronized scholars like Barani & Afif
  • As he was guided by Ulemas, he was intolerant towards Shia Muslims & Sufis
  • Treated Hindus as 2nd grade citizen

 

After his death Taimur (Timur) entered Delhi & looted enormous wealth, murdered thousands & left India in 1399 blowing a death blow to Tughlaq dynasty


Delhi Sultanate


Sayyids (1414 – 1451)

  • Before departure, Timur appointed Khirz khan as governor of Multan
  • Khirz Khan captured Delhi & founded Sayyids Dynasty
  • Last prince of sayyid dynasty, Alam Shah (Weakest Sayyid Prince) handed over throne to Bahlol lodi & retired to Badaun

 


Lodis (1451 – 1526)

  • Lodis who succeeded Sayyids were Afgans with Bahlol lodi as 1st Afgan ruler, while his predeccessors were all Turks
  • Succeeded by his Son Sikandar lodi (Greatest of all Lodis)  He destroyed many Hindu temples & imposed many restrictions on Hindus
  • Succeeded by Ibrahim Lodi (His son), who was highly arrogant in nature & insulted his nobles openly. Nobles who ever revolted were put to death.
  • Greatly displeased by arrogance of Ibrahim Lodi, Daulat khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India, who marched Delhi & killed Ibrahim Lodi in 1st battle of Panipat

 

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