Delhi Sultanate → Tughlaq Dynasty, Sayyids Dynasty, Lodi Dynasty

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)

  • Founded by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
  • Laid foundation of Tughlaqabad near Delhi
  • Killed by his own son “Ulugh khan” who ascended throne under the name of Muhammad – bin – tughlaq in 1325

 


Muhammad – Bin – Tughlaq (ill-starred Idealist)

  • Known for his tolerant nature in religious matters & novel experiments
  • Only sultan who had received a literary, religious & philosophical education
  • Formed 2nd capital at Devagiri to control south India under the name of Daultabad
  • He forced royals, people & Sufis to move to Daultabad, but many of them died in rigorous journey (1500 Km)
  • After 2 years Sultan abandoned Daultabad & asked them to return to Delhi
  • Introduced copper coins at par value of silver Tanka but couldn’t prevent forgery, hence stopped the circulation of token money
  • Exchanged silver coins for all copper coins circulated in the market which led to vanish of royal treasury
  • To overcome financial difficulties, he imposed heavy tax revenue on land, which led to strong revolt from peasants (as at the same time a strong famine was also ravaging)
  • Later, Sultan launched a scheme by which “Takkavi loans” (Loan for cultivation) were given to farmers to buy seeds & to extend cultivation.
  • A separate department for agriculture “Diwan – i – Kolhi” was established. This experiment was further continued by Firoz Tughlaq
  • On Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s Death, Barani quoted “Finally sultan was freed from people & people from sultan”. He also called sultan as mixture of opposites.

Firoz Tughlaq

  • Appointed Khan – i – Jahan Maqbal, a telegu brahmin convert as Wazir of his kingdom to help him in day to day administration
  • Collected 1300 Sanskrit manuscripts from Jwalamukhi temple’s library (Himachal Pradesh) & got them converted into Persian
  • Revived Iqta system & made it hereditary (Nobles hereditary succession to their properties)
  • Had largest slaves in his period (Diwan-e-Bandagani)

 

Industries & Taxes

  • Levied various taxes  Jiziya on Non-Muslims
  • Abolished taxes on 28 items as was against the Islamic law
  • 1st sultan to impose irrigation tax
  • Developed irrigation network by means of canals & highly encouraged horticulture
  • Developed royal factories “Karkhanas”, in which thousands of slaves were employed
  • Introduced a department called Diwan – i – Khairat to take care of Orphans & Widows
  • Developed free hospitals & Marriage bureaus for poor Muslims

 

Art & Culture

  • Formed 300 new towns as Firozabad near Red fort (Delhi), Now known as Firozshah Kotla
  • Patronized scholars like Barani & Afif
  • As he was guided by Ulemas, he was intolerant towards Shia Muslims & Sufis
  • Treated Hindus as 2nd grade citizen

 

After his death Taimur (Timur) entered Delhi & looted enormous wealth, murdered thousands & left India in 1399 blowing a death blow to Tughlaq dynasty


Delhi Sultanate


Sayyids (1414 – 1451)

  • Before departure, Timur appointed Khirz khan as governor of Multan
  • Khirz Khan captured Delhi & founded Sayyids Dynasty
  • Last prince of sayyid dynasty, Alam Shah (Weakest Sayyid Prince) handed over throne to Bahlol lodi & retired to Badaun

Lodis (1451 – 1526)

  • Lodis who succeeded Sayyids were Afgans with Bahlol lodi as 1st Afgan ruler, while his predeccessors were all Turks
  • Succeeded by his Son Sikandar lodi (Greatest of all Lodis)  He destroyed many Hindu temples & imposed many restrictions on Hindus
  • Succeeded by Ibrahim Lodi (His son), who was highly arrogant in nature & insulted his nobles openly. Nobles who ever revolted were put to death.
  • Greatly displeased by arrogance of Ibrahim Lodi, Daulat khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India, who marched Delhi & killed Ibrahim Lodi in 1st battle of Panipat.
"We Request you to shop on Amazon or Flipkart using links given below to help us earn Referral Commission"

SHOP ON AMAZON                               SHOP ON FLIPKART

best ias books

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>