Indo Islamic Architecture in Medieval India
Indo Islamic / Indo Saracenic Style
- Advent of Islam in the Indian subcontinent around the 7th century
- Indo-Islamic architecture → a mixture of Indian, Persian, Arab and Turkish
- The early buildings of the Slave dynasty consisted of false domes and false arches
- Introduction of true arches and true domes started to appear with construction of Alai Darwaza by the side of Qutub Minar (By Allaudin Khilji)
|Distinguishing features of Indo-Islamic architecture
||Islamic style incorporated many elements from the traditional Indian style viz.
- As human worship and its representation is not allowed in Islam, the buildings and other edifices are generally decorated richly in geometrical and arabesque designs
- These designs were carved on stone in low relief, cut on plaster, painted or inlaid. The use of lime as mortar was also a major element distinct from the traditional building style.
- The tomb architecture is another striking feature of the Islamic architecture → Practice of the burial of the dead
- The general pattern of the tomb architecture is consisted of
- a domed chamber (hujra)
- a cenotaph in its centre with a mehrab on the western wall
- the real grave in the underground chamber
- To this general tomb architecture, the Mughals added a new dimension by introducing gardens all around the tomb.
- The Mughal tombs are generally placed at the centre of a huge garden complex, the latter being sub-divided into square compartments, known as char-bagh style
- Scholars trace the evolution of the char-bagh pattern of gardening to the original land of the Mughals, the Kabul Valley
- The Mughals are also credited to have introduced the double dome system of dome architecture and the pietra-dura style of inlay decorations.
- Arabesque means geometricized vegetal ornament.
- It is characterized by continuous stem which splits regularly producing a series of counter poised, leafy secondary stems
- Secondary stems split again into tertiary stems to be reintegrated into the main stem.
Prominent Indo-Islamic architectural styles
- The Imperial Style (Delhi sultanate)
- The Provincial styles (Malwa, Bengal, Jaunpur)
- The Mughal Style (Delhi, Agra and Lahore)
- The Deccani style (Bijapur and Hyderabad)