Medieval Architecture Styles (Other than Indo-Islamic)

Rajput Architecture Style

Rajput palaces – built as innercitadels surrounded by the city and enclosed by a fortified wall as at Chittorgarh and Jaisalmer. Some forts, such as those at Bharatpur and Deeg, were protected by wide ditch filled with water surrounding the fort.

  • Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Udaipur and Kota Palaces → Built approx. 17th to early 18th century
  • Bikaner is encircled by 5.63 km long Stone wall made of rich pink sandstone with five gates & three sally ports
  • Jodhpur Fort dominates the city, which is surrounded by a huge wall nearly 9.5 km long with 101 bastions
  • Meherangarh fort stands on a cliff with a sheer drop of over 36 metres.


Man Mandir

  • The largest palace in Gwalior, was built by Raja Man Singh Tomar (1486-1516)
  • Has two storeys above, and two below ground level overhanging a sandstone cliff
  • This gigantic cliff is punctuated by five massive round towers, crowned by domed cupolas and linked by delicately carved parapets

Man Mandir GwaliorMan Mandir


  • Built by Jai Singh, represents a synthesis of Rajput and Mughal architectural styles.
  • The city is enclosed by a wall and has bastions and towers at regular intervals.
  •  Prominent structures at Jaipur
  • Hawa Mahal (1799) has a five-storeyed symmetrical facade composed of 953 small casements in a huge curve each with a projecting balcony and crowning arch.
  • Jantar Mantar, the largest of five observatories built by Jai Singh II in the early 18thcentury, others being Ujjain, Mathura, Varanasi & New Delhi.

Hawa Mahal

Jantar Mantar

Jantar Mantar

Avadh Architecture Style

    • Safdar Jung’s tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753)
    • Bara Imambara → Built by the Nawab in 1784. Absence of pillars in the main hall (Simple & symmetrical in design)


  • Chattar Manzil → Main attractions are the underground rooms and a beautiful dome surrounded by a gilt umbrella
  • Kaiser Bagh → A quadrangular park with a baradari (pavilion) and yellow-coloured buildings on three sides.
  • Roshanwali Kotiand Begum Koti → Situated at Hazratgunj  with Italian style being more prominent


Kashmir Style

  • Typified by use of woodwork.
  • log construction using deodar trees for the construction of wooden bridges calledkadals or the wooden shrines called ziarats
  • Mosque of Shah Hamdan in Srinagar and the Jami Masjid at Srinagar built by Sikandar Butshikan (1400 AD) – examples of the wooden architecture
  • Fort of Hari Parbat, the Pattar Masjid (1623) and the Akhun Mulla Shah’s mosque (1649) are illustrations of art of stone building in Kashmir.


Punjab Architecture Style

    • Influenced by the Mughal Style
    • Features → multiplicity of Chattris /kiosks, fluted dome generally covered with copper or brass gilt and enrichment of arches by numerous foliations


  • Notable example → Golden Temple at Amritsar (1764) built by the fourth Sikh Guru Ramdas.


Jain Architecture Style

  • Prominent Feature → Chamukhs or four-faced temples.
  • Four Tirthankars placed back to back to face four cardinal points.
  • Entryinto these temples is also from four doors
  • Notable example includes Chamukh temple of Adinath (Ranakpur) (1618 AD)


  • Most spectacular of all Jain temples are found at Ranakpur and Mount Abu in Rajasthan
  • Deogarh (Lalitpur, U.P.), Ellora, Badami and Aihole also have some of the important specimens of Jain Art
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