Colonial Architecture – Modern India
- Portuguese established impressive churches in Iberian style of architecture for ex. churches of Goa
- Francis Church at Cochin( 1510) is believed to be the first church built by the Europeans in India
- Portuguese used bricks as the main building material along with wooden roofs & stairs
- British followed various architectural styles viz. Gothic, Imperial, Christian, Palladian and Victorian being prominent
- Britishers used Red sandstone & coarse limestone as the main building material
- Constantia, a building erected by General Martin (British) at Lucknow, is the best specimen of Palladian Style in India
- Wittet designed the Gateway of India in Mumbai, borrowing several elements of Mughal style
- Sardar Ram Singh, a master builder of Punjab, designed the Central Museum and the Senate House at Lahore (in Pakistan)
Victoria Terminus Station (Chhatrapati Shivaji station), Mumbai
- Designed by the British architect F. W. Stevens, the structure became the symbol of Bombay
- Based on late medieval Italian models, the terminal was built over 10 years, starting in 1878
- An outstanding example of Victorian Gothic revival architecture in India
- Blended with themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture
- Bombay city was labelled as the ‘Gothic City’
Victoria Memorial Hall (Kolkata)
- Designed by William Emerson in late 19th century
- To perpetuate the memory of Queen Victoria in India
- Drew elements from the indigenous & Indo-Islamic architecture combined with the Gothic revival & Neo-Classical styles
Revival of Delhi
- 1911 → Transfer of capital from Calcutta (now Kolkata) to Delhi
- Sir Edward Lutyens was made responsible for the overall plan of Delhi
- He constructed India Gate and Rashtrapati Bhawan (Vice Regal Place)
- Vice regal palace appeared with a huge dome on the lines of a Buddhist stupa,
- Represent some elements of Hindu ornamentation & Islamic symmetry
- Herbert Baker added South Block and North Block, which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan.
- Englishman Robert Tor Tussell built the Connaught Place.
Some Famous Architects of Modern India
- Was called as the architect of the poor and the conscience keeper of India.
- He merged the buildings with the environment and utilized locally available materials.
- To reduce the consumption of steel and cement, he introduced filler slab construction.
- While designing he gave more importance to ventilation & thermal comfort.
- Revolutionized mass housing in Kerala.
- He was a German Architect and was commissioned with instructions to stay clear of elements of British or Mughal Architecture
- Heinz used local materials like red sand stone and lime which were easily available.
- Prominent Feature → Red sandstone buildings with white domes, with big courtyards and windows
- Architecture by him is known as modern style of architecture as it resembles today’s style buildings
- He was a French Architect
- He designed the city of Chandigarh on the pattern of well-ordered matrix
- He conceived the Idea of sector as self-sufficient green belt
- Designed regular grid system for fast moving traffic
- He was a Goan Architect & played pivotal role past independence.
- He placed special emphasis on prevailing resources, energy and climate as major determinants in the ordering of space.
- He did pioneer work in urban issues and low cost shelter in the third world.
- Example: Planning of Navi Mumbai, Kanchenjunga apartment, Mumbai, British Council building, New Delhi, etc.