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Architecture & Culture of India


  • Culture is a way of life the way an individual and especially a group live, think, feel and organize themselves, celebrate and share life.
  • Culture thus refers to a human-made environment which includes all the material and non-material products of group life that are transmitted from one generation to the next.
  • In deeper sense it is culture that produces the kind of  literature, music, dance, sculpture, architecture and various other art forms as well as the many organizations and structures that make the functioning of the society smooth and well-ordered.
  • Culture is the expression of our nature in our modes of living and thinking.
Culture of India



  • Dress
  • Food
  • Physical Goods

  • Idea
  • Thoughts & Beliefs
  • Ideals
Self-restraint in conduct, consideration for the feelings of others, for the rights of others, are the highest marks of culture.

Civilization vs Culture

Civilization Culture
Making better ways of livingBending nature to fulfill our needs Refers to the inner being, a refinement of head and heart
A poor man wearing cheap cloths  may be considered uncivilized Still he/she may be the most cultured person
A wealthy man may be considered as civilized But he may not be cultured

Civilization is advanced state of culture

Cultural Heritage

  • Culture inherited from our predecessors is called our cultural heritage.
  • Humanity as a whole has inherited a culture which may be called human heritage.
  • A nation also inherits a culture which may be termed as national cultural heritage.
  • Culture is liable to change, but our heritage does not.


Architectural creations, material artifacts, intellectual achievements, philosophy, pleasure of knowledge, scientific inventions and discoveries are parts of heritage.

General Characteristics of Culture 

  • Culture is learned and acquired
  • Culture is shared by a group of people
  • Culture is cumulative
  • Culture changes
  • Culture is dynamic
  • Culture gives us a range of permissible behaviour patterns
  • Culture is diverse
  • Culture is ideational


Importance of Culture in Human Life

  • Human beings are creators of culture and, at the same time, culture is what makes us human.
  • It defines our traditions, beliefs, & way of life  Spiritually & Materialistically
  • The three universal values “Truth, Beauty and Goodness” are closely linked with culture.


Culture of India

Culture is derived from Latin term ‘cult or cultus’ meaning cultivating or refining and worship. The term ‘Sanskriti’ has been derived from the root ‘Kri (to do).

Kri Prakriti basic matter or condition When ‘prakriti’ is refined it becomes ‘Sanskriti’ and when broken or damaged it becomes ‘vikriti’
Sanskriti refined matter or condition
vikriti modified/ decayed matter or condition

Characteristics of Indian Culture

  • A synthesis of various cultures came about through the ages to give shape to what is recognized as Indian culture today.
  • Spirituality and value based life style is the core of Indian culture but it has a scientific temperament too.
  • Unity in diversity is one of the major characteristics of Indian culture which makes it unique.


 Indian Architecture


  • Not a modern phenomenon Since early Paleolithic times
  • Rise & fall of different empires influenced the growth & evolution of Indian architecture


Architecture vs Sculpture


  • Design & construction of buildingsVarious type of material used i.e. Stone, wood, grass, metal etc.
  • Involves engineering mathematics depends upon measurement

  • 3 D work of artMade of single piece of material
  • Involves creativity, imagination may not depend on measurement

Classification of Indian Architecture

Ancient India 

  • Harappa ArtMauryan Art
  • Post Mauryan Art
  • Gupta Age Art
  • South India Architecture
Medieval India  

  • Delhi Sultanate
  • Mughal Period
Modern India 

  • Indo – Gothic Style
  • Neo – Roman Style
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017


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