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Prominent Elements & Compounds

Carbon & Its Compounds

Catenation Self-linking property to form a long chain
Carbon Black Soot obtained when NG, Kerosene, Petroleum etc. are burnt in limited supply of air
Coke By destructive distillation of coal
Wood Charcoal Strong heating of coal in limited supply of air
Sugar Charcoal By Action of H2SO4 on cane sugar
Animal Charcoal By Heating bones in absence of air

Carbon and its compounds


Allotropy

  • A chemical element is said to exhibit allotropy when it occurs in two or more forms in the same physical state; the forms are called allotropes.
  • Allotropes generally differ in physical properties such as color and hardness; they may also differ in molecular structure or chemical activity, but are usually alike in most chemical properties.

 

Allotropes of Carbon

Diamond
  • Each carbon atom in a diamond is covalently bonded to four other carbons in a tetrahedron
  • Used for cutting, drilling , grinding , and polishing
  • Hardest known natural mineral & a potential semiconductor material
Graphite
  • Unlike diamond, graphite is an electrical conductor
  • Graphite powder is used as a dry lubricant
  • Most stable allotrope of carbon & slightly more reactive than diamond
Buckminster fullerene (C 60)
  • A class of carbon allotropes in which carbon takes the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube
  • This class of materials includes carbon nanotubes, buckyballs, and the newly discovered nanobuds

Graphene

Graphene
  • A single layer of carbon atoms arranged in one plane
  • Layers of graphene make up graphite viz. a single layer of graphite is called graphene
  • Has high electron mobility and its possible applications in electronics
  • Basic structural element of carbon allotropes such as graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes
Amorphous carbon
  • Carbon that does not have any crystalline structure
  • Coal and soot or carbon black are informally called amorphous carbon
Carbon nanotubes
  • Are cylindrical carbon molecules having extraordinary strength
  • Have unique electrical properties, and efficient conductors of heat

 


Prominent Elements & Compounds

Chlorine Disinfectant of water
Liquid Hydrogen Used as rocket fuel
Zinc Used in Galvanising iron to prevent it from rusting
AgCl & AgBr Used in black & white photography (Photo chromatic glass)
Cr & Ni Mfg of stainless steel & electroplating of iron (Ni prohibits magnet prop. of iron)
Lead Used in car batteries
Zirconium Used to make bullet proof alloy steel
Hydrogen Manufacturing of Vanaspati ghee
Neon Gas Used in advertising signs
Argon gas Filled in light bulbs to prevent tungsten filament from reacting
Cesium Used in photoelectric cells
Beryllium Used in making windows of X rays
Lithium Bromide Acts as a sedative
Lithium chloride To regulate humidity in air conditioning plant
Boron fibres Used to make bullet proof vests & aircraft material
Aluminium Powder Used in flashlights for indoor photography
Borosilicate Pyrex glass – Heat & Shock resistant
Ceramics Aluminosilicates (Clay + Sand + Feldspar)
Silver paint Aluminium powder + Linseed oil
HF Used  to etch glass & manufacturing of glass shell for TV tubes
Helium Used in filling Balloons
Oxygen + Helium Used in artificial respirations in deep sea diving
Radon Treatment of cancer, X rays Photography

 

Keratome Diamond knife, used by eye surgeons to remove cataract from eyes
Isomers Same chemical formula but different structure (n butane & iso-butane)
Ethene Used in ripening of fruits
LPG Mixture of n-butane & iso-butane with small amount of ethane & propane
Blue flame Complete burning of fuel (full oxygen supply)
Yellow flame Incomplete combustion of flame
CNG Mainly CH4
Biodiesel Used as diesel additive (Veg oil + animal fat)
Universe Hydrogen (91 %) > Helium (9 %)
Human Body Hydrogen (60.5 %) > Oxygen (25.5 %)
Earth Crust Oxygen (60 %) > Silicon (20 %) > Aluminium (6 %)

 

Nitrogen 
  • Filled in light bulbs to prevent tungsten filament from reacting
  • Used as refrigerant to prevent food material
  • Used to make TNT & Nitroglycerine (used as explosives)
Sulfur 
  • Used in vulcanization of rubber
  • Used as disinfectant & fungicide
  • Used as refrigerant
  • Used to make gun powder
Ozone
  • Used as a disinfectant & germicide for purifying water
  • Used for purifying air in crowded cinema hall
  • Used in manufacturing of artificial silk
Zeolites
  • Aluminosilicates – Used as catalysts in petrochemical industries for cracking hydrocarbons
  • Covert alcohol to Gasoline
Cement
  • Mixture of silicates & aluminates of calcium + small amount of gypsum
  • CaO.SiO2, CaO.Al2O3
Glass
  • Silica (SiO2) in quatz when heated at 1600 – 1700 * C produces amorphous liquid which on cooling provides Qautz or Silica glass

 


Rarest, Heaviest & Most

Rarest Astatine Most abundant element in the Universe Hydrogen
Lightest Hydrogen Most abundant element in the human body Hydrogen
Heaviest Natural Uranium Most abundant element in the Earth crust Oxygen
Heaviest Density wise Osmium Most abundant metallic element in the earth’s crust Aluminum
Most Malleable Gold First artificial element Technetium
Most Ductile Gold Heaviest gaseous element Radon
Most Conductive Silver lightest metal element Lithium
Most Electronegative Fluorine Least dense metal Lithium
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