Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856

Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856

  • Shifted the headquarters of Bengal Artillery from Calcutta to Meerut
  • Simla was made the permanent headquarters of the army & summer capital
  • formation of Gurkha regiments took place in his reign
  • Youngest Governor General of India (36 Years), & also known as
  • Father of Indian Telegraph
  • Father of Indian Railways
  • Father of Indian Postal system
  • Father of Indian Engineering Services
  • Maker of modern India
  • Followed Policy of Annexation viz.
  • Annexed Burma via. second Burmese war
  • Annexed Avadh Offended Muslims & Indian soldiers (Mostly from Avadh)
  • Doctrine of Lapse 
  • Annexed Punjab (2nd Anglo Sikh war)

Lord Dalhousie annex punjab


Doctrine of Lapse

  • This policy was based on difference in principle b/w right to inherit property & right to govern
  • Alliance King without heir can not adopt an heir for kingdom
  • Lapsed Satara, Jaitpur and Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur, Jhansi, & Awadh in given order
  • Annexed states were monitored by chief commissioners with introduction of centralized control called non-regulation system for modern centralized states

 


Reforms & Developments

Telegraph
  • In 1852, Under superintendence of O’Shaughnessy 4000 miles of lines were laid down
  • Connected Calcutta, Peshawar, Bombay & Madras telegraphically
  • Proved to be a boon for Britishers in revolt of 1857
Railway
  • Started “guarantee system” by which the railway companies were guaranteed a minimum interest of five percent on their investment
  • Government retained the right of buying the railway
  • Mainly for Defense, Commercial & Administrative reasons
  • 1st railway line – Bombay to Thane 1853
  • 2nd Calcutta to Raniganj coal fields 1854
  • 3rd Madras to Arakkonam 1856
Postal System Laid down foundation of Modern postal system in 1854 with introduction of postal stamps →Postal system started in 1837)
IES
  • Created separate public work departments
  • Allotted more funds for cutting canals & roads
  • Upper Gangatic panel was cut in 1854
  • Many bridges were constructed
  • Hence laid foundation of Indian engineering services
Social & Educational
  • Passed widow Remarriage Act (1856)
  • Recommended the setting up of universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras
  • In 1853, competitive examination for the Indian Civil Services began – Written exam started in 1854 in India
  • Educational reforms of Sir Charles wood (1854) are considered intellectual charted of India which provided an outline for Primary, Secondary & Collegiate levels of education.

Woods Dispatch, 1854

  • In 1854, Charles Wood prepared a dispatch on an educational system for India.
  • Considered as “Magna Carta of English Education in India”
  • This document was the 1st comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.
  • Asked the Government to assume responsibility for education of the masses, thus repudiating the ‘downward filtration theory’, at least on paper.
  • Systematised the hierarchy from vernacular primary schools in villages at bottom, followed by Anglo-Vernacular High Schools and an affiliated college at the district level, and affiliating universities in the presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
  • Recommended English as the medium of instruction for higher studies and vernaculars at school level.
  • Laid stress on female and vocational education, and on teachers training.
  • Laid down that the education imparted in government institutions should be secular.
  • Recommended a system of grants-in-aid to encourage private enterprise.

Charter Act 1853

  • Further addition of 6 members to GG council making it a body for legislative purposes.
  • 6 members were CJI + sitting judge of SC + 4 representatives from NWFP, Bombay, Madras, Bengal → →Addition of local presidencies representation in central legislative council)
  • Indian civil services became the open competition & Macalay was made chairman of Indian civil services committee.
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