Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856
Lord Dalhousie 1848-1856
- Shifted the headquarters of Bengal Artillery from Calcutta to Meerut
- Simla was made the permanent headquarters of the army & summer capital
- formation of Gurkha regiments took place in his reign
- Youngest Governor General of India (36 Years), & also known as
- Father of Indian Telegraph
- Father of Indian Railways
- Father of Indian Postal system
- Father of Indian Engineering Services
- Maker of modern India
- Followed Policy of Annexation viz.
- Annexed Burma via. second Burmese war
- Annexed Avadh →Offended Muslims & Indian soldiers (Mostly from Avadh)
- Doctrine of Lapse
- Annexed Punjab (2nd Anglo Sikh war)
Doctrine of Lapse
- This policy was based on difference in principle b/w right to inherit property & right to govern
- Alliance King without heir can not adopt an heir for kingdom
- Lapsed Satara, Jaitpur and Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur, Jhansi, & Awadh in given order
- Annexed states were monitored by chief commissioners with introduction of centralized control called non-regulation system for modern centralized states
Reforms & Developments
|Postal System||Laid down foundation of Modern postal system in 1854 with introduction of postal stamps →Postal system started in 1837)|
|Social & Educational||
Woods Dispatch, 1854
- In 1854, Charles Wood prepared a dispatch on an educational system for India.
- Considered as “Magna Carta of English Education in India”
- This document was the 1st comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.
- Asked the Government to assume responsibility for education of the masses, thus repudiating the ‘downward filtration theory’, at least on paper.
- Systematised the hierarchy from vernacular primary schools in villages at bottom, followed by Anglo-Vernacular High Schools and an affiliated college at the district level, and affiliating universities in the presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
- Recommended English as the medium of instruction for higher studies and vernaculars at school level.
- Laid stress on female and vocational education, and on teachers training.
- Laid down that the education imparted in government institutions should be secular.
- Recommended a system of grants-in-aid to encourage private enterprise.
Charter Act 1853
- Further addition of 6 members to GG council making it a body for legislative purposes.
- 6 members were CJI + sitting judge of SC + 4 representatives from NWFP, Bombay, Madras, Bengal → →Addition of local presidencies representation in central legislative council)
- Indian civil services became the open competition & Macalay was made chairman of Indian civil services committee.