Battle of Plassey, Battle of Buxar, Warren Hastings, Regulating Act, Pitts Act
Battle of Plassey, 1757
- Reason – The servants of company were indulged in abuse of dastaks in inland trade and not paying duty.
- Between (Sirajuddaula (Nawab of Bengal) + His French support troop) V/S Robert Clive
- Treachery by Mir-Jafar + Mohan Lal → Commanders of Nawab’s army
- Result → Robert clive won & marked Foundation of British Rule in India
- Mir Jafar became the first titular Nawab of Bengal paving the way for British Empire in India
Battle of Buxar, 1764
- Between (Nawab of Bengal Mir Qasim + Nawab of Awadh Shuja Uddaula + Mughal emperor Shah Alam 2) V/S East India Company under the command of Major Hector Munro
- Result → East India Company won
- Allahabad Treaty was signed – Dual system 1965 (Power without responsibilities + Will not come under British parliament scanner – as political authority will be Nawab only + Open annexation may have resulted joint war from princely states + Other European powers may not have recognize the authority of Britishers & may lodge war on them + EIC was more interested in financial & commercial gains rather than territorial acquisitions)
- Law & Order under Nawab
- Diwani Rights to British to collect taxes on behalf of the Emperor from the eastern province of Bengal-Bihar-Orissa
- British were given power to decide civil cases.
- Clive was in England when Battle of Buxar w as fought and won by the British. In 1765
- Clive returned & became Governor General of Bengal for the second time
- William Fort at Bengal was founded for governor
Reason for Battle of Buxar
- The servants of company were indulged in abuse of dastaks in inland trade and not paying duty.
- Mir Qasim abolished all inland duties to place Indian merchants on the same footing as the English, which angered the British.
First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-1769)
- In 1767 Mysore was a powerful state under Hyder Ali.
- In 1769, the first Anglo-Mysore war was fought in which Haider Ali defeated the British
- Treaty of Madras was signed between them.
- Haider Ali occupied almost the whole of Carnatic.
Warren Hastings, 1772-1785
- Unified Diwani Rights, Cut Nawabs annual allowances
- Established Board of revenue
- Shifted treasury to Calcutta (became capital of Bengal in 1772)
- Founded Civil court + Criminal court in each district
- Founded two Appellate courts viz.
- Sardar Diwani Adalat for civil cases
- Sardar Nizamat Adalat for criminal cases
- Abolished the system of dastaksc (free passes) → regulated internal trade
- Enforced a uniform tariff of 2.5 % for Indian and non-Indian goods
- Started Annual lease / Izaredari system auctioning the land to highest bidder in Bengal
- In 1781, he founded the Calcutta Madrasa for promotion of Islamic studies. This was the first educational institute established by the Company’s government.
- Office of DM was created for the 1st time in 1771
Wars by Warren Hastings
First Rohilla War
- Sirajuddaula, Nawab of Awadh vs Rohilla, Afgas settled in Rohilkhand
- The Nawab was supported by troops of the British East India Company
- Result → Rohilkhand fell to Awadh, was plundered and occupied
- The war became a matter of Westminster politics during the Impeachment of Warren Hastings
First Anglo Maratha War
- Between Mahadji Shinde (Maratha Leader) & British forces at Wadgaon (Pune)
- British were defeated & signed a treaty of Wadgaon as per the terms of the Marathas
- Treaty of Wadgaon was held invalid by Warren Hastings, who quoted that the Presidency of Bombay had no legal power to sign such treaty.
- The Calcutta Presidency sent another force which harassed Mahadji
- Accordingly a new treaty called “Treaty of Salbai” was signed between the British and the Marathas.
Second Anglo Mysore war
- A prolonged war which took 4 years to conclude without victory of any side
- Haider Ali died in 1782, the battle remained indecisive
- A peace was finally concluded with Tipu Sultan on the basis of a mutual restitution of all conquests.
- This was called the “Treaty of Mangalore“
Impeachment of Warren Hastings
- Warren Hastings was impeached in England on charges related to the Rohilla War, the Case of Nanda Kumar, the treatment of Raja Chait Singh of Benares and the pressures on the Begums of Oudh.
- Nanda Kumar was an influential official in Bengal. He was hanged to death by the verdict of the Supreme Court at Calcutta for a petty offence of forgery. It was contended that Warren Hastings and the judge of the Supreme Court conspired against Nanda Kumar.
- Warren Hastings imposed heavy penalty on the Raja Chait Singh of Benares for his delay in payment of tribute and deposed him in an unjust manner.
- The Begums of Oudh were mother and grandmother of the Nawab of Oudh. Warren Hastings helped the Nawab by sending his troops to the help of Nawab who squeeze money from the Begums.
Regulating Act – 1773
- The Regulating Act of 1773 is called the First step of Government Control in India to regulate the affairs of the East India Company
- Address the problem of management of company in India.
- Address the problem of dual system of governance instituted by Lord Clive
- To control the company, this was so far a business entity but now a semi-sovereign political entity in India
- Court of Directors term increased from 1 → 4 years with ¼ retiring every year & not eligible for re-election
- Made the presidencies of Bombay and Madras as subordinate to the Presidency of Calcutta.
- Governor of Bengal → Governor General of Fort William for 5 years
- Council of Ministers of four people to assist Governor General of Fort William
- Decision to be taken via majority with governor’s vote as casting vote in a tie
- Governor general → Supreme over other presidencies in peace and war
- Establishment of Supreme court at Calcutta (1 CJ + 3 Judges) Independent of Gov. General.
- No Gift/ Cash acceptance by Gov. General or Council or Supreme Court members
Pitts Act – 1784
- Reduced Council of Ministers from 4→ 3 (Including commander in chief)
- Formation of Board of control (6 Members) appointed by crown working alongside board of directors
- Court of Directors – To look after commercial functions & represented the company
- Board of control – To look after political affairs representing the crown
- Distinguished between the commercial and political functions of the Company
- Authorised Court of Directors to make all recruitments in India
- Supreme court made for only British subjects
- Established a system of double government
- British Government was given the supreme control over Company’s affairs and its administration in India