United Nations Organization (UNO)
- An intergovernmental organization established on 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation
- As a replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created following the Second World War to prevent another such conflict.
- At its founding, the UN had 51 member states committed to maintain international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights; now there are 193.
- The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General.
|Official Languages||Arabic, English, French, Chinese, Spanish, Russian|
|Members||193 (Latest Member South Sudan)|
|Secretary General||Ban Ki Moon|
|Emblem||Map of world b/w 2 olive branches (In white n Blue color)|
The UNO has 4 main purposes
- To keep peace throughout the world;
- To develop friendly relations among nations;
- To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms;
- To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.
Principle Organs of UNO
General Assembly (New York)
- Composed of all United Nations member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions, but emergency sessions can also be called
- Led by a president, elected from among the member states on a rotating regional basis, & 21 vice-presidents
- Major work area of General Assembly consists of:
- Election of members to other UN organs
- Admission, suspension, and expulsion of member states
- Budgetary matters by majority of votes i.e. 2/3rd of the members present & voting
- Make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under consideration by the Security Council
- Elects the non-permanent members of the UNSC; all members of ECOSOC; the UN Secretary General (following proposal by the UNSC); and the fifteen judges of the International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Security Council (Policemen of the world) (New York)
- Charged with maintaining peace and security among countries
- While other organs of the UN can only make “recommendations” to member states, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions on member states
- 5 permanent members (Veto power) + 10 Non-permanent for 2 years
- The five permanent members hold veto power over UN resolutions, allowing a permanent member to block adoption of a resolution, though not debate
- The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms, with member states voted in by the General Assembly on a regional basis
- The presidency of the Security Council rotates alphabetically each month.
Secretariat (New York)
- Headed by Secretary-General who acts as the de factospokesperson and leader of the UN
- Secretary-General is appointed by General Assembly, after being recommended by the Security Council
- Carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies.
International Court of Justice (The Hague, Netherland)
- Composed of 15 judges who serve 9-year terms; appointed by the General Assembly;
- Every sitting judge must be from a different nation
- Hear cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference, ethnic cleansing, and other issues
- ICJ’s primary purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states
Economic and Social Council (New York)
- Assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social co-operation and development
- Has 54 members, which are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term
- The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen amongst the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC