United Nations Organization (UNO)

  • An intergovernmental organization established on 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation
  • As a replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was created following the Second World War to prevent another such conflict.
  • At its founding, the UN had 51 member states committed to maintain international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights; now there are 193.
  • The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General.


Headquarter New York
Official Languages Arabic, English, French, Chinese, Spanish, Russian
Members 193 (Latest Member South Sudan)
Secretary General Ban Ki Moon
Emblem Map of world b/w 2 olive branches (In white n Blue color)



The UNO has 4 main purposes
  • To keep peace throughout the world;
  • To develop friendly relations among nations;
  • To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms;
  • To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.


Principle Organs of UNO

United Nations Organization


General Assembly (New York)
  • Composed of all United Nations member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions, but emergency sessions can also be called
  • Led by a president, elected from among the member states on a rotating regional basis, & 21 vice-presidents
  • Major work area of General Assembly consists of:


  • Election of members to other UN organs
  • Admission, suspension, and expulsion of member states
  • Budgetary matters by majority of votes i.e. 2/3rd of the members present & voting


  • Make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under consideration by the Security Council
  • Elects the non-permanent members of the UNSC; all members of ECOSOC; the UN Secretary General (following proposal by the UNSC); and the fifteen judges of the International Court of Justice (ICJ)


Security Council (Policemen of the world) (New York)
  • Charged with maintaining peace and security among countries
  • While other organs of the UN can only make “recommendations” to member states, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions on member states
  • 5 permanent members (Veto power) + 10 Non-permanent for 2 years


  • The five permanent members hold veto power over UN resolutions, allowing a permanent member to block adoption of a resolution, though not debate
  • The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms, with member states voted in by the General Assembly on a regional basis
  • The presidency of the Security Council rotates alphabetically each month.


Secretariat (New York)
  • Headed by Secretary-General who acts as the de factospokesperson and leader of the UN
  • Secretary-General is appointed by General Assembly, after being recommended by the Security Council
  • Carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies.


International Court of Justice (The Hague, Netherland) 
  • Composed of 15 judges who serve 9-year terms; appointed by the General Assembly;
  • Every sitting judge must be from a different nation
  • Hear cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference, ethnic cleansing, and other issues
  • ICJ’s primary purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states


Economic and Social Council (New York)
  • Assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social co-operation and development
  • Has 54 members, which are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term
  • The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen amongst the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017


  1. sir, the current secretary general is Antonio Gutteres. He became the secretary general on 1st January 2017

  2. You have mixed up ICC and ICJ’s info. ICJ is UN’s Judicial body whereas ICC is formed from Rome Statute and is independent of the UN. Plus, some other info in ICJ’s part is for ICC, not ICJ

    • Priyamvada Tendulkar, Thanks for correcting me. With the flow of the article i mixed up between ICJ & ICC. Corrected Now

      • Hey, thanks for the prompt change. Just one more issue. Point 3 is ICC’s function, not the ICJ’s :)

      • Point 3 is precisely ICJ’s function not ICC’s. ICC, Borne out of Rome Statute, has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes :)

      • Aah! I concede that point. This is quite a feat to keep straight in the mind :)

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