Origin of Earth

Gaseous Theory (1755)

  • By Imanuel Kant (German)
  • Primordial matter was evenly distributed in shape of small & cold particles from which our earth & other planets of solar system formed


Nebular Hypothesis (1796)

  • By Laplace (French)
  • Primordial matter existed in form of intensely hot & rotating gaseous mass (Nebula), Which cooled with time
  • This resulted in decrease of its volume & increase in its rotational speed, which in turn increased its centrifugal force
  • The centrifugal force when exceeded gravitational force, a ring shape deformed from nebula & many other rings formed out of its breaking.
  • These rings on cooling became planets & satellites & remaining part of nebula is sun


Planesimal Hypothesis (1900)

  • By Chamberlain & Moulton
  • A wandering star approached the sun & exerted its gravitational pull on the sun, which resulted in separation of cigar shaped material from the sun.
  • As star moved away from the sun, material separated from the sun started revolving around the sun & condensed into planets at later stage.


Tidal Hypothesis

  • By Sir James Jeans (British) & Harold Jeffrey
  • Sun was a gaseous mass; another star several times larger than sun accidentally came close to it & pulled gaseous mass away from the sun due to its gravitational pull.
  • Giant tongue of matter came out from the sun & planets were formed


Big Bang Theory (1929)

  • By Edwin Hubble (American)
  • Everything in the world emerged from a point known as singularity (of indefinite mass & indefinite density) about 13.7 billion years ago.
  • As galaxies moved away, space between them expanded (Red shift).
  • As the universe expanded, hot radiation in original firewall cooled down, which led to formation of different galaxies which further broke into stars & finally stars broke to form planets.

Origin of Earth big-bang-timeline

Curved Surface of Earth (Spherical form)

Ship’s visibility When a ship appears over the distant horizon, top of the mast is seen before the hull & vice a versa.

Spherical earth prove

Sunrise & Sunset Sun rises & sets at different times in different places. As earth rotates from west to east, places in east see sun earlier than those in the west.

Sunrise & Sunset

Lunar eclipse Shadow cast by earth on the moon during the lunar eclipse is always circular

Driving poles on level ground on curved earth
  • Engineers while driving poles of equal length at regular intervals on the ground have found that they do not give a perfect horizontal level.
  • Centre pole normally projects slightly above the poles at either end because of curvature of the Earth
  • Hence they have to make certain corrections for this inevitable curvature i.e. 8” to a mile


Aerial Photographs
  • Pictures taken from high altitudes by rockets & satellites show clearly the curved edge of the earth.
  • This is perhaps the most convincing & up to date proof of earth’s sphericity
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017


  1. thankyou very much to share the knowledge.

  2. Very nice Sir

  3. Thank you very much

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