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Indus Valley Civilization (2900 – 1700 BC)

  • Indus valley civilization is older than chalcolithic culture but was far more developed
  • Marked the beginning of Bronze age civilization

 

Sights of Indus Valley Civilization

Early (Pre Harappan) Mature (Harappan)  Late Phase (Post Harappan)
  Harappa (Pakistan @ Ravi)  
  Mohenjodaro (Pakistan @ Indus)  
  Chanhudaro (Pakistan @ Indus)  
  Sutkagendor (Pakistan)  
  Sukotada (Gujrat)  
  Lothal (Gujrat @ Bhogava)  
Kalibangan Kalibangan (Rajasthan @ Ghaggar)  
Banawali Banawali (Hissar @Ghaggar)  
Rakhigarhi Rakhigarhi (Hissar @Ghaggar) Rakhigarhi
Dholavira Dholavira (Kutch) Dholavira
  Bhagwanpura
  Manda (Jammu), Chandigarh,Shangol (Punjab), Daulatpur,Mitthal (Haryana), AlamgirpurHulas (West UP)

Developments in Indus Valley Civilization

  • Citadel / Acropolis at cities for member of ruling class (west side) & brick houses below citadel in town for commoners
  • Remarkable grid system of roads  Roads cutting at right angle to each other
  • Large scale use of burnt bricks & total absence of stone buildings
  • Remarkable underground drainage system connecting all houses & streets covered by bricks / stone slabs
  • Agriculture technology was well developed (But no use of ploughshare) : Wheat, Rice, Barley, Peas etc. + Domesticated large scale of animals
  • Cotton was 1st produced by Indus people hence Greeks called it Sindon which is derived from Sindh

Indus Valley Civilization

  • Harappan were 1st to produce silver in the world + wore gold, silver & beads Jewelry
  • Practiced boat making, seal making, Bronze smith, Weavers etc.
  • Granaries & seals show Harappan carried on considerable trade but only through Barter system
  • No temples has been found at any of the site hence can be said that it was ruled by merchants not priests
  • Worshiped Goddess Earth, Pipal Tree, Pashupati Mahadeva & Animals (Bull / Unicorn Rhino)
  • 1st to invent the art of writing – Right to left – (Pictographic only  Not deciphered so far)
  • Used weights for trade (Mostly in multiple of 16) & Bronze made marked sticks for measurements
  • Were expert in Potter’s wheel & pottery making
  • Their greatest artistic creation was ” Seals”
  • Mostly limestone was used for sculptures.

Indus Valley Civilization Site

Remarkable Feature

Mohenjodaro
  • Great Bath (Largest Brick Work)
  • Great Granary (Largest Building)
  • Impressive drainage system
  • Bronze image of dancing girl
  • Image of steatite bearded man
  • Piece of woven cotton
  • Seal of pashupati
  • Prepared Garments
  • Skeletons on stairs of well (Mount of the dead)
Lothal
  • Artificial Dock (Manchester of Harappan civilization)
  • Art of double burial
  • Cotton cultivation
Kalibangan
  • Granary & Wooden plough
  • Wells in every house
  • Camels Bone
Harappa
  • 2 rows of 6 granaries
Chanhudaro
  • Lancashire of India
  • Only city without citadel
  • Bangles Factory
  • Beads Factory
Rakhigarhi
  • Biggest Site

 

Theory of Decline of Indus Valley Civilization

  • Natural Calamities such as floods, Earthquakes etc.
  • Decrease in Land fertility
  • Outbreak of an epidemic
  • Decline of trade & Invasion of Aryansported in Ashoka’s times from Persia. There is abundant evidence of stone masons mark similar to those at Persepolis (Persia).
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017

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