Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas

“During Sangam age south India was ruled by 3 dynasties namely Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas”

Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas

Cheras (Keralaputras)

Capital Vanji Seaports → Muziri & Tondi Emblem Bow
  • Roman Temple of Augustus (Later destroyed by Tipu)
  • Greatest Ruler: Senguttuvan (Red/Good Chera)
  • Trade: Pepper (Yavanpriya) + Jackfruit with Romans


Cholas (Cholamandam)

Emblem Tiger Chief crop  Paddy


  • Greatest Ruler: Karikala Founded Puhar (Kaveripatanam) Capital on river Kaveri
  • Seaport Puhar (became center of commerce & trade)
  • Uraipur: Chief Political Center Famous for Cotton trade



Emblem Carp Chief crop Paddy


  • Founded by a woman king
  • Patronized Sangam assembly at capital Madurai
  • Famous for its pearls trade


Imp. Features of 3 kingdoms

  • Major Revenue Source: Agriculture + Trade (Custom duty) + Warbooty
  • Main influence of Brahamans (Sacrifices + Dakshina) Prominent
  • Primary Deity Seyon / Murugan / Known as Subramaniyam in medieval times along with other gods worshipped were Vishnu & Indra
Ruling class Arasar
Lowest class Kadaisiyar
Military captains Enadi
Rich Peasants Vellasem
Agricultural labours Pariyars (who worked in animal skin)


  • Artisans were organized in Shrenis acc. to work which had judicial power over them & can issue loans to workers.
  • Chief exports were Cotton fabric, Pepper (Yavanpriya), Ivory, Cardamom, Pearl, Cinnamon & Precious stones & chief imports were Gold, Horses, sweet wines & Coins (Gold & Silver)
  • In north, Mathura was famous for a special kind of cloth called “Shataka”
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