Sociology Optional Syllabus UPSC Mains Exam

Sociology Syllabus Paper – I → Fundamentals of Sociology

Sociology – The Discipline

  • Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
  • Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
  • Sociology and common sense. 

 

Sociology as Science

  • Science, scientific method and critique.
  • Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
  • Positivism and its critique.
  • Fact value and objectivity.
  • Non- positivist methodologies. 

 

Research Methods and Analysis

  • Qualitative and quantitative methods.
  • Techniques of data collection.
  • Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

 

Sociological Thinkers

  • Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
  • Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
  • Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
  • Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
  • Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
  • Mead – Self and identity.

 

Stratification and Mobility

  • Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
  • Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
  • Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
  • Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

 

Works and Economic Life

  • Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
  • Formal and informal organization of work.
  • Labour and society.

 

Politics and Society

  • Sociological theories of power.
  • Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
  • Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
  • Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

 

Religion and Society

  • Sociological theories of religion.
  • Types of religious practices → animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
  • Religion in modern society → religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

 

Systems of Kinship

  • Family, household, marriage.
  • Types and forms of family.
  • Lineage and descent.
  • Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
  • Contemporary trends.

 

Social Change in Modern Society

  • Sociological theories of social change
  • Development and dependency
  • Agents of social change
  • Education and social change
  • Science, technology and social change.

 

Click Here – Book For Sociology Optional Paper – 1 

Sociology Syllabus Paper – II → Indian Society → Structure & Change

Introducing Indian Society

  • Perspectives on the study of Indian society
  • Indology (GS. Ghurye)
  • Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas)
  • Marxist sociology (A R Desai)
  • Impact of colonial rule on Indian society
  • Social background of Indian nationalism
  • Modernization of Indian tradition
  • Protests and movements during the colonial period
  • Social reforms

 

Social Structure

  • Rural and Agrarian Social Structure
  • The idea of Indian village and village studies
  • Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms
  • Caste System
  • Perspectives on the study of caste systems → GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille
  • Features of caste system.
  • Untouchability – forms and perspectives
  • Tribal communities in India
  • Definitional problems
  • Geographical spread
  • Colonial policies and tribes
  • Issues of integration and autonomy
  • Social Classes in India
  • Agrarian class structure
  • Industrial class structure
  • Middle classes in India
  • Systems of Kinship in India
  • Lineage and descent in India
  • Types of kinship systems
  • Family and marriage in India
  • Household dimensions of the family
  • Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour
  • Religion and Society
  • Religious communities in India
  • Problems of religious minorities

 

Social Changes in India

  • Visions of Social Change in India
  • Idea of development planning and mixed economy
  • Constitution, law and social change
  • Education and social change
  • Rural and Agrarian transformation in India
  • Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes
  • Green revolution and social change
  • Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture
  • Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration
  • Industrialization and Urbanisation in India
  • Evolution of modern industry in India
  • Growth of urban settlements in India
  • Working class → structure, growth, class mobilization
  • Informal sector, child labour
  • Slums and deprivation in urban areas
  • Politics and Society
  • Nation, democracy and citizenship
  • Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite
  • Regionalism and decentralization of power
  • Secularization
  • Social Movements in Modern India
  • Peasants and farmers movements
  • Women’s movement
  • Backward classes & Dalit movement
  • Environmental movements
  • Ethnicity and Identity movements
  • Population Dynamics
  • Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
  • Components of population growth → birth, death, migration.
  • Population policy and family planning
  • Emerging issues → ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
  • Challenges of Social Transformation
  • Crisis of development → displacement, environmental problems and sustainability
  • Poverty, deprivation and inequalities
  • Violence against women
  • Caste conflicts
  • Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism
  • Illiteracy and disparities in education

 

Click Here – Book For Sociology Optional Paper – 2

 

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