Greenhouse Effect & Greenhouse Gases
Water vapor is the biggest contributor to the greenhouse effect; However CO2 & other greenhouse gases are increasing the amount of water vapors in the air by boosting the rate of evaporation
Major Contributors: CO2 (Fossil fuels) > CO2 (Deforestation) > CH4 > N2O
- Rate of evaporation rises with temperature, the amount of water vapour at any time is strongly related to the amount of other greenhouse gases in the air.
- Wetlands – largest source of CH4 due to bacteria that decomposes organic material in absence of air
- Globally, Agriculture sector is primary source of CH4 emission via animal manure biogas
- Methane is also the primary constituent of Natural gas
- Black carbon commonly known as soot is a form of particulate air pollutant, produced from incomplete combustion (Consist of pure carbon & strongest absorber of sunlight)
- Black carbon stays in the atmosphere for only several days to weeks, whereas carbon dioxide (CO2) has an atmospheric lifetime of more than 100 years
- Together, black carbon, methane & ozone are responsible for 30 – 50% of human effects on global warming. However, unlike CO2which lasts over 100 yrs once released, these pollutants are short lived.
- Project Surya aims to mitigate the regional impacts of global warming by reducing atmospheric concentrations of black carbon, methane, and ozone
- Major co-benefits of reducing these air pollutants will include immediate improvements in public health, agricultural productivity and economic development for the rural populations in developing nations.
Global Warming Potential
- a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere
- compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide
- GWP of Primary CHGs – SF6 > PFCs > HFCs > N2O > CH4 > CO2