Geography Syllabus UPSC Mains Exam

Geography Syllabus Paper – I → Principles of Geography

Physical Geography

Geomorphology

  • Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces;
  • Origin andevolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism;
  • Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
  • Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis;
  • Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ;
  • Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development;
  • Applied Geomorphology  Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.

 

Climatology

  • Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth;
  • Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds;
  • Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones;
  • Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate;
  • Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates;
  • Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.

 

Oceanography

  • Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;
  • Temperature and salinity ofthe oceans; Heat and salt budgets,
  • Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides;
  • Marine resourcesbiotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching;
  • sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution

 

Biogeography

  • Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion,
  • Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals;
  • Problems of deforestation and conservation measures;
  • Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

 

Environmental Geography

  • Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man onecology and environment;
  • Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation;
  • Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development;
  • Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

 

Human Geography 

Perspectives in Human Geography

  • Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism;
  • Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
  • Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation;
  • Cultural regions of the world; Human development index

 

Economic Geography

  • World economic developmentmeasurement and problems;
  • World resources andtheir distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth;
  • World agriculturetypology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity;
  • Food and nutrition problems; Food security; faminecauses, effects and remedies;
  • World industrieslocational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.

 

Population and Settlement Geography

  • Growth and distribution of world population; demographicattributes;
  • Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population;
  • Population theories, world population problems and policies,
  • Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital
  • Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;
  • Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphologyConcepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities

 

Regional Planning

  • Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
  • Growth centresand growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies;
  • Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

 

Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography

  • Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian,Marxian and demographic transition models;
  • Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and Boudeville;
  • Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth
  • Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

 

Click Here – Book For Geography Optional Paper – 1

 

Geography Syllabus Paper – II → Geography of India

Physical Setting

  • Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief;
  • Drainagesystem and watersheds; Physiographic regions;
  • Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances;
  • Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions

 

Resources

  • Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources;
  • Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation;
  • Energy crisis

 

Agriculture

  • Infrastructureirrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power;
  • Institutional factorsland holdings, land tenure and land reforms;
  • Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability;
  • Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications;
  • Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution;
  • Aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.

 

Industry

  • Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium,fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile,
  • Cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings;
  • Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization;
  • Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco-tourism.

 

Transport, Communication and Trade

  • Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development;
  • Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones;
  • Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme

 

Cultural Setting

  • Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities;
  • Religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems;
  • Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population;
  • Demographic attributes → sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

 

Settlements

  • Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities;
  • Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl;
  • Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

 

Regional Development and Planning

  • Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes;
  • Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management;
  • Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning;
  • Regional planning and development of island territories.

 

Political Aspects

  • Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states;
  • Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues;
  • Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs;
  • Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm

 

Contemporary Issues Ecological issues

  • Environmental hazards → landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics;
  • Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use;
  • Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management;
  • Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion;
  • Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development;
  • Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness;
  • Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy

 

Click Here – Book For Geography Optional Paper – 2 

 

NOTE → Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper

"We Request you to shop on Amazon or Flipkart using links given below to help us earn Referral Commission"

SHOP ON AMAZON                               SHOP ON FLIPKART

best ias books

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>