Wetlands, Ramsar Convention, Montreux Record, Estuaries 

Wetlands 

Areas intermediate in character between deep-water & terrestrial habitats, transitional in nature & often located in-between them (Riparian >> relating to or situated on the banks of a river)

  • Experience periodic flooding, often contain water logged & hydric soils (Not enough oxygen for plants) with Hydrophytes & halophytes plant types
  • Wetlands (usually less than 3 m deep over most of their area) are rich in nutrients & abundant in growth of aquatic macrophytes
  • Support high densities & diversities of fauna & have high value of biodiversity conservation

Wetlands


Ramsar Convention

  • an international treaty for the conservation & sustainable utilization of wetlands, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands & their economic, cultural, scientific, & recreational value
  • named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971;
  • Canada has the highest area under wetland and UK has highest number of wetlands
Types of Wetlands


Montreux Record

  • a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference
  • a voluntary mechanism to highlight specific wetland of international importance under the Ramsar convention, which are facing immediate challenges

Wetland Ecosystem


Estuaries

  • located where river meets sea which means freshwater from river mixes with salt water of the oceans via tides
  • Estuaries are the most productive water bodies in the world, located at the lower end of the river & are subjected to tidal fluctuations
  • An estuary is semi enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it with free connection to open sea
  • Complete salinity range from 0 to 35 PPT is found, from the head (River end) to the mouth (Sea end)
  • Depicted as most productive regions & heavily populated with about 60 % of world population, living along estuaries & coasts.
  • Trapping of suspended mud & sand carried by the rivers leads to formation of deltas alongside estuaries

Estuaries

  • Referred by different names as lagoons, inlets, bays, harbours etc. (Coastal lakes which have their connection with the sea through small openings are better known as lagoons or backwater)
  • In India, major estuaries occur at bay of Bengal as most of the rivers in peninsular India are west to east flowing & hence on the eastern coast (Larger in size than estuaries at western coast)
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2 Comments

  1. Hi, would you be providing information on the Environment related organizations and treaties?

  2. Thank you very much..much needed information for every aspirant

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