Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas

Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas

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Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas

“During Sangam age south India was ruled by 3 dynasties namely Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas”

Cheras, Cholas & Pandyas


Cheras (Keralaputras)

Capital [arr] Vanji Seaports [arr] Muziri & Tondi Emblem [arr] Bow

 

  • Roman Temple of Augustus (Later destroyed by Tipu)
  • Greatest Ruler: Senguttuvan (Red/Good Chera)
  • Trade: Pepper (Yavanpriya) + Jackfruit with Romans

Cholas (Cholamandam)

Emblem [arr] Tiger Chief crop [arr] Paddy

 

  • Greatest Ruler: Karikala [arr] Founded Puhar (Kaveripatanam) [arr] Capital on river Kaveri
  • Seaport [arr] Puhar (became center of commerce & trade)
  • Uraipur: Chief Political Center Famous for Cotton trade

Pandyas

Emblem [arr] Carp Chief crop [arr] Paddy

 

  • Founded by a woman king
  • Patronized Sangam assembly at capital Madurai
  • Famous for its pearls trade

Sangam-age-Chola-CheraPandyas-


Imp. features of 3 Kingdoms

  • Major Revenue Source: Agriculture + Trade (Custom duty) + Warbooty
  • Main influence of Brahamans [arr] (Sacrifices + Dakshina) Prominent
  • Primary Deity [arr] Seyon / Murugan / Known as Subramaniyam in medieval times along with other gods worshipped were Vishnu & Indra
Ruling class Arasar
Lowest class Kadaisiyar
Military captains Enadi
Rich Peasants Vellasem
Agricultural labours Pariyars (who worked in animal skin)

 

  • Artisans were organized in Shrenis acc. to work which had judicial power over them & can issue loans to workers.
  • Chief exports were Cotton fabric, Pepper (Yavanpriya), Ivory, Cardamom, Pearl, Cinnamon & Precious stones & chief imports were Gold, Horses, sweet wines & Coins (Gold & Silver)
  • In north, Mathura was famous for a special kind of cloth called “Shataka”.
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