best ias books

Fracking Technology, M Sand, Geotechnical Textiles, Green Diesel, Biodiesel

Fracking Technology or Hydraulic fracturing

  • A well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by hydraulically pressurized liquid
  • Usually chemicals and sand suspended in water – injected into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations
  • When pressure is removed, small grains particles (sand or Al oxide) hold the fractures open, once deep rock achieves geologic equilibrium


Uses of Hydraulic fracturing
To stimulate groundwater wells Enhancing waste remediation, usually HC waste Geothermal electricity generation
To measure stress in the Earth Increase injection rates for geologic sequestration CO2 rock cave-in mining


Hydraulic fracturing


Adverse effects of Hydraulic Fracturing

Contamination of ground water Degradation of the air quality Noise pollution + Surface pollution
Depletion of fresh water Triggering of earthquakes Methane emission


Oil obtained through hydraulic fracturing contains chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, which may increase the rate at which rail tank and pipelines corrode, potentially releasing their load


M Sand (Manufactured Sand)

  • Fine & uniform granulation of quarry dust (from blue metal), floated through pressurized water, to reduce impurities
  • Dearer to river sand – a crushed aggregates produced from hard granite stone – easily available – reduce transportation
  • Dust free, well graded & easily controllable in size + No organic & soluble compound –Quality & strength to concrete
  • Cubical in shape acquired through high carbon steel hitting rock on rock – process similar to natural process


Geotechnical Textiles

Permeable fabrics, typically made from polypropylene or polyester, which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain – Usually placed at the tension surface to strengthen the soil

  • Help in creating Roads with less maintenance & longer life + help in storing rain water and address water scarcity issue
  • In high seismic activity regions – Will help in preventing Landslides

Geotextiles Applications

  • Used in civil & coastal engineering viz. roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, reservoirs, canals, dams
  • Used for sand dune armoring to protect upland coastal property from storm surge & flooding
  • Used as matting to stabilize flow in stream channels + Can improve soil strength at lower cost than conventional soil nailing


Refuse Derived Fuel / Waste to Energy Fuel via Incinerator Technology

  • A fuel produced by shredding & dehydrating solid waste with a waste converter technology
  • Extracted from municipal solid waste using a mix of mechanical + biological treatment methods
  • Only those wastes that are found unrecyclable after segregation should be put into the incinerators
  • In compliance with the Kyoto Protocol, RDF can provide a funding source via a carbon exchange market


Green Diesel / Renewable Diesel / 2nd Generation Diesel

  • Made from vegetable oils, waste cooking oil & animal fats, made of recently living biomass, chemically same as petro diesel
  • Unlike biodiesel, which is an ester & has different chemical properties from Petro-diesel, Green diesel is composed of long-chain hydrocarbons, & can be mixed with petroleum diesel in any proportion without any engine modification
  • Great advantage over bio-diesel in colder climates as It doesn’t cloud or gel out until much lower temperatures (-40*C)
  • Has higher cetane rating and on a gallon to gallon basis contains 22% more energy + Reduces carbon emissions
  • Doesn’t smell like fossil diesel, but it has a pleasant kind of soap smell


green diesel vs biodiesel


  • Fuel manufactured from animal or vegetable fats (Jatropa), chemically, Biodiesel is Methyl Ester or Ethyl Ester
  • Have similar physical properties to diesel but different chemical properties
  • (Animal/plant) fat + Alcohol (Methanol/Ethanol) + Catalyst + high (temp + pressure) Glycerin + Biodiesel
  • Glycerin is separated & used in soap-cosmetic industry. If Glycerin is not removed from biodiesel, then it’ll block fuel filters
  • Can be blended at any level with (real) diesel, rich in oxygen & reduces GHG emission


Green curtain

  • Railways will construct boundary wall around stations (landscaping & plantation); watchmen will patrol the area
  • Anyone caught urinating/defecating/littering in this area, will be punished.
  • Watchman patrolling will be counted as CSR activity.



  • a bio-digester tank in every toilet, contains 4 type of anaerobic bacteria
  • They digest human excreta, via four steps: hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis.
  • No bad smell, don’t need large space, no human excreta in toilets or tracks – hygiene and cleanliness
  • converts human excreta in to water (irrigation) and methane gas (cooking)
  • Rural Development ministry tied up with DRDO to install bio-toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan
India Yearbook English India Yearbook Hindi Economic Survey 2017

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